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Citations for "On the Measurement of Polarization"

by Joan-Maria Esteban & Debraj Ray

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  1. CASTANEDA DOWER, Paul & GINSBURGH, Victor & WEBER, Shlomo, 2014. "Colonial legacy, linguistic disenfranchisement and the civil conflict in Sri Lanka," CORE Discussion Papers 2014048, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  2. Jordi Teixidó-Figueras & Juan Antonio Duro, 2014. "Spatial Polarization of the Ecological Footprint distribution," Working Papers XREAP2014-02, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised Feb 2014.
  3. Marcelo Cortes Neri & Nanak Kakwani, 2016. "On Measuring Social Tensions: With Applications To Brazil," Anais do XLIII Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 43rd Brazilian Economics Meeting] 220, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
  4. HAIMANKO, Ori & LE BRETON, Michel & WEBER, Shlomo, 2002. "Transfers in a polarized country: bridging the gap between efficiency and stability," CORE Discussion Papers 2002018, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  5. Alessio Fusco & Jacques Silber, 2014. "On social polarization and ordinal variables: the case of self-assessed health," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 15(8), pages 841-851, November.
  6. DUCLOS, Jean-Yves, 1995. "Economic Isolation, Inequality, and the Suits Index of Progressivity," Cahiers de recherche 9510, Université Laval - Département d'économique.
  7. Sanghamitra Bandyopadhyay, 2011. "Rich States, Poor States: Convergence And Polarisation In India," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 58(3), pages 414-436, 07.
  8. Pierre Yared, 2008. "The Use of Concessions in Forestalling War," 2008 Meeting Papers 32, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  9. Desmet, Klaus & Ortuño-Ortín, Ignacio & Wacziarg, Romain, 2009. "The Political Economy of Ethnolinguistic Cleavages," CEPR Discussion Papers 7478, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  10. Rolf Aaberge & A.B. Atkinson & Henrik Sigstad, 2015. "Income Poverty, Affluence and Polarisation Viewed From The Median," CASE Papers /194, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, LSE.
  11. Alberto Alesina & Johann Harnoss & Hillel Rapoport, 2013. "Birthplace Diversity and Economic Prosperity," NBER Working Papers 18699, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Torrisi, Gianpiero & Pike, Andy & Tomaney, John & Tselios, Vassilis, 2011. "(Re-)exploring the link between devolution and regional disparities in Italy," MPRA Paper 32212, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  13. Roberto Ezcurra & Carlos Gil & Pedro Pascual, 2005. "Regional welfare disparities: the case of the European Union," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(12), pages 1423-1437.
  14. Filippo Gregorini, 2007. "Political Geography and Income Inequalities," DISCE - Quaderni dell'Istituto di Teoria Economica e Metodi Quantitativi itemq0746, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dipartimenti e Istituti di Scienze Economiche (DISCE).
  15. Juan Antonio Duro & Emilio Padilla, 2011. "Cross-country polarisation in CO2 emissions per capita in the European Union: changes and explanatory factors," Working Papers wpdea1106, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
  16. Farhad Noorbakhsh, "undated". "Spatial inequality and polarisation in India," Working Papers 2004_5, Business School - Economics, University of Glasgow.
  17. Ranis, Gustav, 2011. "Diversity of Communities and Economic Development: An Overview," Working Papers 93, Yale University, Department of Economics.
  18. Epstein, Philip & Howlett, Peter & Schulze, Max-Stephan, 2003. "Distribution dynamics: stratification, polarization, and convergence among OECD economies, 1870-1992," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 78-97, January.
  19. Van der Berg, Servaas & Louw, Megan & Burger, Ronelle, 2007. "Post-Apartheid South Africa: Poverty and Distribution Trends in an Era of Globalization," MPRA Paper 9065, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  20. Satya Chakravarty & Bhargav Maharaj, 2011. "Measuring ethnic polarization," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer;The Society for Social Choice and Welfare, vol. 37(3), pages 431-452, September.
  21. Michael Kremer & Alexei Onatski & James Stock, 2001. "Searching for Prosperity," NBER Working Papers 8250, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  22. Conchita D'Ambrosio & Edward N. Wolff, "undated". "Is Wealth Becoming More Polarized in the United States?," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_330, Levy Economics Institute.
  23. Walter Bossert & Conchita D’Ambrosio & Eliana Laferrara, 2006. "A Generalized Index of Fractionalization," Working Papers 313, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
  24. Jung, Florian & Sunde, Uwe, 2014. "Income, inequality, and the stability of democracy — Another look at the Lipset hypothesis," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 52-74.
  25. Oded Stark & Walter Hyll & Doris Behrens, 2010. "Gauging the potential for social unrest," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 143(1), pages 229-236, April.
  26. Damien Echevin & Antoine Parent, 2002. "Les indicateurs de polarisation et leur application à la France," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 155(4), pages 13-30.
  27. Prados de la Escosura, Leandro, 2007. "International inequality and polarization in living standards, 1870-2000 : evidence from the Western World," IFCS - Working Papers in Economic History.WH wp07-05, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto Figuerola.
  28. Conchita D'Ambrosio & Pietro Muliere & Piercesare Secchi, 2003. "Income Thresholds and Income Classes," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 325, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  29. Iñaki Permanyer, 2008. "Social Polarization: Introducing distances between and within groups," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 751.08, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
  30. Philip Keefer, 2008. "Insurgency and Credible Commitment in Autocracies and Democracies," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 22(1), pages 33-61, January.
  31. Ann-Sofie Isaksson, 2011. "Social divisions and institutions: assessing institutional parameter variation," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 147(3), pages 331-357, June.
  32. Castañeda Dower, Paul & Ginsburgh, Victor & Weber, Shlomo, 2015. "Colonial Legacy, Polarization and Linguistic Disenfranchisement: The Case of the Sri Lankan War," CEPR Discussion Papers 10617, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  33. Holger Strulik, 2008. "Social composition, social conflict and economic development," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(530), pages 1145-1170, 07.
  34. Can B. & Ozkes A.I. & Storcken A.J.A., 2014. "Measuring polarization of preferences," Research Memorandum 018, Maastricht University, Graduate School of Business and Economics (GSBE).
  35. BOURDIEU Jérôme & MENENDEZ Martha & POSTEL-VINAY Gilles & SUWA-EISENMANN Akiko, 2007. "Where have (almost) all the wealthy gone? Spatial decomposition of wealth trends in France, 1820-1939," Research Unit Working Papers 0710, Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquee, INRA.
  36. Ernesto Cárdenas, 2013. "Social polarization and conflict: A network approach," REVISTA CUADERNOS DE ECONOMÍA, UN - RCE - CID, December.
  37. Gustav Ranis, 2011. "Diversity of Communities and Economic Development: An Overview," Working Papers 1001, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
  38. Testa, Cecilia, 2010. "Bicameralism and corruption," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 54(2), pages 181-198, February.
  39. Torrisi, Gianpiero, 2007. "A simulation on the 2013 EU Regional Policy Outcome," MPRA Paper 12766, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  40. Labeaga, José M. & Molina, José Alberto & Navarro Paniagua, Maria, 2007. "Income Satisfaction and Deprivation in Spain," IZA Discussion Papers 2702, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  41. Francesco Caselli & Wilbur John Coleman II, 2006. "On the Theory of Ethnic Conflict," CEP Discussion Papers dp0732, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  42. Jayanta Sarkar & Dipanwita Sarkar, 2012. "Why does child labour persist with declining poverty?," NCER Working Paper Series 84, National Centre for Econometric Research, revised 21 Nov 2012.
  43. BOSSERT, Walter & SCHWORM, William, 2007. "A Class of Two-Group Polarization Measures," Cahiers de recherche 10-2007, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
  44. Strulik, Holger, 2012. "Poverty, voracity, and growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(2), pages 396-403.
  45. Maria Livia ŞTEFĂNESCU, 2015. "Analyzing the health status of the population using ordinal data," Computational Methods in Social Sciences (CMSS), "Nicolae Titulescu" University of Bucharest, Faculty of Economic Sciences, vol. 3(1), pages 18-24, June.
  46. Ahmed Mahmud & Juan Vargas, 2011. "Combatant recruitment and the outcome of war," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 51-74, March.
  47. Omar Shahabudin McDoom & Rachel M. Gisselquist, 2016. "The Measurement of Ethnic and Religious Divisions: Spatial, Temporal, and Categorical Dimensions with Evidence from Mindanao, the Philippines," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 129(2), pages 863-891, November.
  48. Bluhm, Richard & Thomsson, Kaj, 2015. "Ethnic divisions, political institutions and the duration of declines: A political economy theory of delayed recovery," Hannover Economic Papers (HEP) dp-556, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät.
  49. Ma Casilda Lasso de la Vega & Ana Urrutia & Henar Diez, 2008. "Unit-consistency and polarization of income distributions," Working Papers 100, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
  50. Rabah Arezki & Markus Brückner, 2011. "Commodity Windfalls, Polarization, and Net Foreign Assets: Panel Data Evidence on the Voracity Effect," Working Papers 662, Economic Research Forum, revised 12 Jan 2011.
  51. Adam Szulc, 2016. "Changing Mortality Distribution in Developed Countries from 1970 to 2010: Looking at Averages and Beyond Them," Statistics in Transition new series, Główny Urząd Statystyczny (Polska), vol. 17(3), pages 467-496, September.
  52. Peter Gripaios & Paul Bishop & Trevor Hart & Eric McVittie, 2008. "Analysing the impact of Objective 1 funding in Europe: a review," Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 26(3), pages 499-524, June.
  53. Jung, Florian & Sunde, Uwe, 2011. "Inequality, Development, and the Stability of Democracy -Lipset and Three Critical Junctures in German History," CEPR Discussion Papers 8406, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  54. Maarten Bosker, 2009. "The spatial evolution of regional GDP disparities in the 'old' and the 'new' Europe," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 88(1), pages 3-27, 03.
  55. Henry G. Overman & Diego Puga, 1999. "Unemployment clusters across European regions and countries," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 20211, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  56. Desmet, Klaus & Ortuño-Ortín, Ignacio & Wacziarg, Romain, 2012. "The political economy of linguistic cleavages," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(2), pages 322-338.
  57. Carlos Gradín & Máximo Rossi, 2001. "The distribution of income in Uruguay: the effects of economic and institutional reforms," Documentos de Trabajo (working papers) 0301, Department of Economics - dECON.
  58. Nisreen Salti & Jad Chaaban, 2010. "The Political Economy of Attracting Public Funds: The Case of Lebanon," Working Papers 550, Economic Research Forum, revised 09 Jan 2010.
  59. Keffer, Philip & Stasavage, David, 2000. "Bureaucratic delegation and political institutions: when are independent central banks irrelevent?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2356, The World Bank.
  60. Michael Carter & Christopher Barrett, 2006. "The economics of poverty traps and persistent poverty: An asset-based approach," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(2), pages 178-199.
  61. Peter Nijkamp & Jacques Poot, 2015. "Cultural Diversity - A Matter of Measurement," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1502, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
  62. Fuad Aleskerov & Victoria Oleynik, 2016. "Multidimensional Polarization Index and its Application to an Analysis of the Russian State Duma," Papers 1608.01351, arXiv.org.
  63. Sanghamitra Bandyopadhyay, 2003. "Convergence club empirics: some dynamics and explanations of unequal growth across Indian states," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 6553, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  64. Xin, Xiuying & Jia, Ning & Zheng, Liang & Ma, Shoufeng, 2014. "Power-law in pedestrian crossing flow under the interference of vehicles at an un-signalized midblock crosswalk," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 406(C), pages 287-297.
  65. Philipp Kolo, 2012. "Measuring a New Aspect of Ethnicity - The Appropriate Diversity Index," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 221, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
  66. Marie-Anne Valfort, 2007. "Containing ethnic conflicts through ethical voting? Evidence from Ethiopia," HiCN Working Papers 35, Households in Conflict Network.
  67. Catherine Bros, 2010. "Social fragmentation and public goods : polarization, inequality and patronage in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00476016, HAL.
  68. Cristina Blanco Pérez & Xavier Ramos, 2010. "Polarization And Health," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 56(1), pages 171-185, 03.
  69. Tewodaj Mogues & Michael Carter, 2005. "Social capital and the reproduction of economic inequality in polarized societies," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 3(3), pages 193-219, December.
  70. Farhad Noorbakhsh, "undated". "The Dynamics of Spatial Inequality and Polarisation in Iran," Working Papers 2003_17, Business School - Economics, University of Glasgow.
  71. Andrew Postlewaite & Dan Silverman, 2004. "Social Isolation and Inequality," PIER Working Paper Archive 05-001, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, revised 01 Dec 2004.
  72. Yann Bramoullé & Sanjeev Goyal, 2009. "Favoritism," Cahiers de recherche 0941, CIRPEE.
  73. Francesco Giovannoni & Daniel J. Seidmann, 2008. "Corruption and Power in Democracies," The Centre for Market and Public Organisation 08/192, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
  74. Jean-Yves Duclos & Joan-Maria Esteban & Debraj Ray, 2003. "Polarization: Concepts, Measurement, Estimation," Working Papers 46, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
  75. Peichl, Andreas & Fuest, Clemens & Schaefer, Thilo, 2006. "Does tax simplification yield more equity and efficiency? An empirical analysis for Germany," FiFo Discussion Papers - Finanzwissenschaftliche Diskussionsbeiträge 06-5, University of Cologne, FiFo Institute for Public Economics.
  76. Joan Esteban & Debraj Ray, 2007. "Polarization, Fractionalization and Conflict," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 703.07, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
  77. Bruno Trezzini, 2008. "Probing the Group Faultline Concept: An Evaluation of Measures of Patterned Multi-dimensional Group Diversity," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 42(3), pages 339-368, June.
  78. Fritzsche, Bernd & Haisken-DeNew, John & Kambeck, Rainer & Siemers, Lars-H. R. & Bergs, Christian & Fuest, Clemens & Peichl, Andreas & Schaefer, Thilo & Thöne, Michael, 2007. "Der Zusammenhang zwischen Steuerlast- und Einkommensverteilung: Forschungsprojekt für das Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales. Endbericht - Dezember 2007," RWI Projektberichte, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, number 70874.
  79. marina, azzimonti, 2009. "Barriers to investment in polarized societies," MPRA Paper 25936, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  80. Esteban, Joan & Ray, Debraj, 1999. "Conflict and Distribution," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 379-415, August.
  81. Azomahou, Theophile & Diene, Mbaye, 2012. "Income polarization and innovation: Evidence from African economies," MERIT Working Papers 048, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  82. Huesca, Luis, 2004. "¿Desaparece la clase media en México?: Una aplicación de la polarización por subgrupos entre 1984 y 2000
    [Is the middle class vanishing in Mexico?: An application of polarization by subgroups betwe
    ," MPRA Paper 14390, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  83. Ricardo Martínez & Bernardo Moreno, 2011. "Manipulability in Restricted Separable Domains," Working Papers 2011-01, Universidad de Málaga, Department of Economic Theory, Málaga Economic Theory Research Center.
  84. Michael Carter & John Morrow, 2012. "Left, Right, Left: Income Dynamics And The Evolving Political Preferences Of Forward-Looking Bayesian Voters," STICERD - Economic Organisation and Public Policy Discussion Papers Series 034, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
  85. Desmet, Klaus & Ortuño-Ortín, Ignacio & Weber, Shlomo, 2005. "Peripheral Diversity and Redistribution," CEPR Discussion Papers 5112, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  86. Michal Brzezinski, 2013. "Income polarization and economic growth," Working Papers 296, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
  87. Gustavo Javier Canavire-Bacarreza & Michael Jetter & Alejandra Montoya-Agudelo, 2016. "Polarized Education Levels and Civil War," CESifo Working Paper Series 6267, CESifo Group Munich.
  88. Philippe Aghion & Alberto Alesina & Francesco Trebbi, 2004. "Endogenous Political Institutions," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 119(2), pages 565-611.
  89. Magdalou, Brice & Nock, Richard, 2011. "Income distributions and decomposable divergence measures," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 146(6), pages 2440-2454.
  90. Foellmi, Reto & Oechslin, Manuel, 2014. "Globalization and Productivity in The Developing World," Papers 713, World Trade Institute.
  91. Matija Kovacic & Claudio Zoli, 2013. "Ethnic Distribution, Effective Power and Conflict," Working Papers 294, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
  92. Gordon Anderson, 2004. "Making inferences about the polarization, welfare and poverty of nations: a study of 101 countries 1970-1995," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 19(5), pages 537-550.
  93. Laurence Kranich & Matteo Cervellati & Joan Esteban, 2006. "The Social Contract with Endogenous Sentiments," Discussion Papers 06-06, University at Albany, SUNY, Department of Economics.
  94. Horatiu Rus, 2010. "Corruption, Conflict and the Management of Natural Resources," Working Papers 1005, University of Waterloo, Department of Economics, revised May 2010.
  95. Pierre PECHER, 2013. "Ethnic conflict, power dynamics and growth," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 2014008, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
  96. Jorge Alcalde-Unzu & Marc Vorsatz, 2008. "The Measurement of Consensus: An Axiomatic Analysis," Working Papers 2008-28, FEDEA.
  97. Alberto Alesina & Arnaud Devleeschauwer & William Easterly & Sergio Kurlat & Romain Wacziarg, 2002. "Fractionalization," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1959, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
    • Wacziarg, Romain & Alesina, Alberto & Devleeschauwer, Arnaud & Easterly, William & Kurlat, Sergio, 2002. "Fractionalization," Research Papers 1744, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
    • Alberto Alesina & Arnaud Devleeschauwer & William Easterly & Sergio Kurlat & Romain Wacziarg, 2003. "Fractionalization," NBER Working Papers 9411, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    • Alberto Alesina & Arnaud Devleeschauwer & William Easterly & Sergio Kurlat & Romain Wacziarg, 2003. "Fractionalization," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/229724, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    • Alesina, Alberto & Devleeschauwer, Arnaud & Wacziarg, Romain & Kurlat, Sergio & Easterly, William, 2003. "Fractionalization," Scholarly Articles 4553003, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  98. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:4:y:2007:i:36:p:1-6 is not listed on IDEAS
  99. Gordon Anderson & Oliver Linton & Yoon-Jae Whang, 2009. "Nonparametric estimation of a polarization measure," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 25378, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  100. Jean-François, MAYSTADT, 2007. "Does inequality make us rebel ? A renewed theoretical model applied to South Mexico," Discussion Papers (ECON - Département des Sciences Economiques) 2007041, Université catholique de Louvain, Département des Sciences Economiques.
  101. Erkan Gören, 2013. "Economic Effects of Domestic and Neighbouring Countries’ Cultural Diversity," Working Papers V-352-13, University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics, revised Mar 2013.
  102. Jae Lee, 2015. "Assessing Mass Opinion Polarization in the US Using Relative Distribution Method," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 124(2), pages 571-598, November.
  103. Gören, Erkan, 2014. "How Ethnic Diversity Affects Economic Growth," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 275-297.
  104. José G. Montalvo & Marta Reynal-Querol, 2005. "Ethnic Polarization, Potential Conflict, and Civil Wars," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(3), pages 796-816, June.
  105. Paul Collier & Anke Hoeffler, 2004. "Murder by Numbers: Socio-Economic Determinants of Homicide and Civil War," Development and Comp Systems 0409048, EconWPA.
  106. Aivazian Sergey & Kolenikov Stanislav, 2001. "Poverty and Expenditure Differentiation of the Russian Population," EERC Working Paper Series 01-01e, EERC Research Network, Russia and CIS.
  107. Mariana Viollaz & Sergio Olivieri & Javier Alejo, 2009. "Labor Income Polarization in Greater Buenos Aires," CEDLAS, Working Papers 0089, CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
  108. William F. Shughart, 2011. "Terrorism in Rational Choice Perspective," Chapters, in: The Handbook on the Political Economy of War, chapter 8 Edward Elgar Publishing.
  109. Iñaki Permanyer, 2008. "The Measurement of Social Polarization in a Multi-group Context," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 736.08, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
  110. Monojit Chatterji & Sushil Mohan & Sayantan Ghosh Dastidar, 2014. "Determinants of public education expenditure: Evidence from Indian states," Dundee Discussion Papers in Economics 280, Economic Studies, University of Dundee.
  111. Molnar, Maria, 2011. "Income Polarization In Romania," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(2), pages 64-83, June.
  112. Sebastián Saiegh, 2014. "Partisanship, Ideology, and Representation in Latin America," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 86258, Inter-American Development Bank.
  113. Catherine Bros, 2010. "Social fragmentation and public goods : polarization, inequality and patronage in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar," Post-Print halshs-00476016, HAL.
  114. Josep Oliver Alonso & Xavier Ramos & José Luis Raymond-Bara, 2001. "Recent trends in Spanish Income Distribution: A Robust Picture of Falling Income Inequality," Working Papers wp0107, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
  115. Alexander Zimper & Alexander Ludwig, 2008. "On attitude polarization under Bayesian learning with non-additive beliefs," Working Papers 104, Economic Research Southern Africa.
  116. Fernando Borraz & Nicolás Gonzalez Pampillón & Máximo Rossi, 2011. "Polarization and the Middle Class," Documentos de Trabajo (working papers) 2011, Department of Economics - dECON.
  117. Konstantin Gluschenko, 2010. "Methodologies of Analyzing Inter-Regional Income Inequality and Their Applications to Russia," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp984, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  118. Gradstein, Mark & Justman, Moshe, 2001. "Education, Social Cohesion and Economic Growth," CEPR Discussion Papers 2773, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  119. Spolaore, Enrico & Wacziarg, Romain, 2009. "War and Relatedness," CEPR Discussion Papers 7371, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  120. Duro, Juan Antonio, 2005. "Another look to income polarization across countries," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 27(9), pages 1001-1007, December.
  121. Chiara Assunta Ricci, 2016. "The mobility of Italy’s middle income group," PSL Quarterly Review, Economia civile, vol. 69(277), pages 173-197.
  122. Bluhm, Richard & Thomsson, Kaj, 2015. "Ethnic divisions, political institutions and the duration of declines," Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy 112863, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
  123. Anna Hardman & Yannis Ioannides, 2004. "Income Mixing and Housing in U.S. Cities: Evidence from Neighborhood Clusters of the American Housing Survey," Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University 0420, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
  124. Rolf Aaberge, 2006. "Gini's Nuclear Family," Discussion Papers 491, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
  125. Prados de la Escosura, Leandro, 2006. "Growth, inequality, and poverty in Spain, 1850-2000: evidence and speculation," IFCS - Working Papers in Economic History.WH wp06-04, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto Figuerola.
  126. Ines Lindner & Holger Strulik, 2008. "Social Fractionalization, Endogenous Appropriation Norms, and Economic Development," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 75(298), pages 244-258, 05.
  127. Iris Burmester & Bettina Scherg, 2013. "Polarisierung von Arbeitseinkommen im internationalen Vergleich – Empirische Befunde," FFB-Discussionpaper 96, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)), LEUPHANA University Lüneburg.
  128. Riccardo Massari, 2009. "Is income becoming more polarized Italy? A closer look with a distributional approach," Working Papers 1, Doctoral School of Economics, Sapienza University of Rome.
  129. Gustav Ranis, 2009. "Diversity of Communities and Economic Development: An Overview," Working Papers 977, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
  130. Timothy Hinks, 2012. "Fractionalization and Well-Being: Evidence from a new South African data set," Working Papers 20121202, Department of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Bristol Business School, University of the West of England, Bristol.
  131. Montalvo, Jose G. & Reynal-Querol, Marta, 2003. "Religious polarization and economic development," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 201-210, August.
  132. Roberto EZCURRA, 2013. "Polarization Trends Across The European Regions," Region et Developpement, Region et Developpement, LEAD, Universite du Sud - Toulon Var, vol. 38, pages 11-26.
  133. Paul Collier & Pedro Vicente, 2012. "Violence, bribery, and fraud: the political economy of elections in Sub-Saharan Africa," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 153(1), pages 117-147, October.
  134. Struch Georg, 2012. "Eine verteilungspolitische Beurteilung aktueller Reformkonzepte zur deutschen Einkommensbesteuerung / A Distributional Analysis of Recent Reform Proposals on the German Income Tax Rate," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 232(5), pages 567-588, October.
  135. Paolo Liberati & Shlomo Yitzhaki, 2012. "GDP and beyond: an implementation of welfare considerations to the distribution of earnings in Italy," Departmental Working Papers of Economics - University 'Roma Tre' 0146, Department of Economics - University Roma Tre.
  136. Duclos, Jean-Yves, 1998. "Social evaluation functions, economic isolation and the Suits index of progressivity," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 103-121, July.
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  284. Lloyd Gruber & Stephen Kosack, 2014. "The tertiary tilt: education and inequality in the developing world," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 54202, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  285. Héctor Galindo Silva, 2007. "Polarización económica y emergencia de confilctos violentos internos un estudio empírico," DOCUMENTOS DE ECONOMÍA 004449, UNIVERSIDAD JAVERIANA - BOGOTÁ.
  286. David Madden, 2011. "The Impact of an Economic Boom on the Level and Distribution of Subjective Well-Being: Ireland, 1994–2001," Journal of Happiness Studies, Springer, vol. 12(4), pages 667-679, August.
  287. Gordon Anderson & Teng Wah Leo & Oliver Linton, 2010. "Making Inferences About Rich Country - Poor Country Convergence: The Polarization Trapezoid and Overlap measures," Working Papers tecipa-387, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
  288. Bruno Trezzini, 2013. "A measure of multidimensional polarization for categorical diversity data," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 47(1), pages 313-333, January.
  289. D'Ambrosio, Conchita & Rodrigues, Rute Imanishi, 2008. "Deprivation in the São Paulo Districts: Evidence from 2000," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 1094-1112, June.
  290. Denis Bouget, 2009. "Trends of Social Welfare Systems : From Convergence to Attractiveness, an Exploratory Approach," Working Papers hal-00441889, HAL.
  291. Michał Brzeziński, 2013. "Parametric Modelling of Income Distribution in Central and Eastern Europe," Central European Journal of Economic Modelling and Econometrics, CEJEME, vol. 5(3), pages 207-230, September.
  292. Timothy Besley & Torsten Persson, 2013. "Taxation and Development," STICERD - Economic Organisation and Public Policy Discussion Papers Series 041, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
  293. repec:hal:journl:halshs-00775929 is not listed on IDEAS
  294. Paolo Verme, 2010. "Relative labour deprivation and urban migration in Turkey," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 8(4), pages 391-408, December.
  295. Anderson, Gordon & Linton, Oliver & Whang, Yoon-Jae, 2012. "Nonparametric estimation and inference about the overlap of two distributions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 171(1), pages 1-23.
  296. Satya Chakravarty & Bhargav Maharaj, 2012. "Ethnic polarization orderings and indices," Journal of Economic Interaction and Coordination, Springer;Society for Economic Science with Heterogeneous Interacting Agents, vol. 7(1), pages 99-123, May.
  297. Gordon Anderson, 2008. "The empirical assessment of multidimensional welfare, inequality and poverty: Sample weighted multivariate generalizations of the Kolmogorov–Smirnov two sample tests for stochastic dominance," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 6(1), pages 73-87, March.
  298. Beyer, Robert C.M. & Stemmer, Michael A., 2016. "Polarization or convergence? An analysis of regional unemployment disparities in Europe over time," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 373-381.
  299. Axel Schmidt, 2002. "Statistical Measurement of Income Polarization. A cross-national comparison," 10th International Conference on Panel Data, Berlin, July 5-6, 2002 D3-1, International Conferences on Panel Data.
  300. Molnar, Maria, 2010. "Income distribution in Romania," MPRA Paper 30062, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  301. Liu, Shen & Maharaj, Elizabeth Ann & Inder, Brett, 2014. "Polarization of forecast densities: A new approach to time series classification," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 345-361.
  302. Desmet, Klaus & Ortuño-Ortín, Ignacio & Wacziarg, Romain, 2015. "Culture, Ethnicity and Diversity," CEPR Discussion Papers 10451, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  303. Ferry Koster, 2013. "Sociality in Diverse Societies: A Regional Analysis Across European Countries," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 111(2), pages 579-601, April.
  304. Ali Ihsan Ozkes, 2013. "Preferential Polarization Measures," Working Papers hal-00875949, HAL.
  305. Rahman, Tauhidur & Mittelhammer, Ronald C., 2004. "Distribution Of Human Development, Child Labor And Poverty In India," 2004 Annual meeting, August 1-4, Denver, CO 20333, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  306. Sahrbacher, Amanda, 2012. "Impacts of CAP reforms on farm structures and performance disparities: An agent-based approach," Studies on the Agricultural and Food Sector in Central and Eastern Europe, Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe (IAMO), volume 65, number 65.
  307. Sergio J. Rey & Mark V. Janikas, 2003. "Convergence and space," Urban/Regional 0311002, EconWPA, revised 16 Nov 2003.
  308. Mauro Mussini, 2016. "On Measuring Income Polarization: An Approach Based On Regression Trees," Statistics in Transition new series, Główny Urząd Statystyczny (Polska), vol. 17(2), pages 221-236, June.
  309. Dev, Pritha, 2010. "Choosing `Me' and `My Friends': Identity in a Non-Cooperative Network Formation Game with Cost Sharing," MPRA Paper 21631, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  310. Farhad Noorbakhsh, "undated". "Human Development and Regional Disparities in India," Working Papers 2003_12, Business School - Economics, University of Glasgow.
  311. Thaize Challier, M.-Christine, 2010. "Socio-political conflict, social distance, and rent extraction in historical perspective," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 51-67, March.
  312. Duro, Juan Antonio & Padilla, Emilio, 2008. "Analysis of the international distribution of per capita CO2 emissions using the polarization concept," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 456-466, January.
  313. Peter Lambert, 2010. "James Foster and Michael Wolfson’s 1992 paper “Polarization and the decline of the middle class”," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 8(2), pages 241-245, June.
  314. Gornig, Martin & Goebel, Jan, 2015. "Deindustrialization and the Polarization of Household Incomes: The Example of Urban Agglomerations in Germany," Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy 112894, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
  315. Juan Antonio Duro Moreno & Emilio Padilla Rosa, 2007. "Análisis de la distribución de las emisiones de CO2 a nivel internacional mediante la adaptación del concepto y las medidas de polarización," Working Papers wpdea0706, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
  316. Juan Antonio Duro, 2004. "Polarització comarcal de rendes a Catalunya," Working Papers wpdea0403, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
  317. Janus, Thorsten & Riera-Crichton, Daniel, 2015. "Economic shocks, civil war and ethnicity," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 115(C), pages 32-44.
  318. Evans Jadotte, 2006. "Income Distribution and Poverty in the Republic of Haiti," Working Papers PMMA 2006-13, PEP-PMMA.
  319. Martyna Kobus, 2015. "Polarization measurement for ordinal data," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 13(2), pages 275-297, June.
  320. Isaksson, Ann-Sofie & Bigsten, Arne, 2014. "Clientelism and ethnic divisions," Working Papers in Economics 598, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
  321. Gruber, Lloyd & Kosack, Stephen, 2014. "The Tertiary Tilt: Education and Inequality in the Developing World," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 253-272.
  322. Lopez-Rodriguez, Patricia & De la Torre Garcia, Rodolfo, 2000. "Closing the gap: the link between social capital and microfinance services," MPRA Paper 22974, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Jun 2009.
  323. Wang, Chen & Wan, Guanghua, 2015. "Income polarization in China: Trends and changes," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 58-72.
  324. Azomahou, Théophile T. & Diene, Mbaye, 2012. "Polarization patterns in economic development and innovation," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 421-436.
  325. Bros, Catherine & Couttenier, Mathieu, 2015. "Untouchability, homicides and water access," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 549-558.
  326. van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M., 2008. "Optimal diversity: Increasing returns versus recombinant innovation," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 68(3-4), pages 565-580, December.
  327. Quah, Danny T., 1996. "Empirics for economic growth and convergence," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1353-1375, June.
  328. Antonio Duro, Juan, 2010. "Decomposing international polarization of per capita CO2 emissions," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(11), pages 6529-6533, November.
  329. Martyna Kobus, 2014. "On the measurement of polarization for ordinal data," Working Papers 325, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
  330. Ricardo Martínez & Bernardo Moreno, 2013. "Strategy-proofness on restricted separable domains," Review of Economic Design, Springer;Society for Economic Design, vol. 17(4), pages 323-333, December.
  331. Ray, Debraj, 2007. "Introduction to development theory," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 137(1), pages 1-10, November.
  332. Héctor Gertel & Roberto Giuliodori & Alejandro Rodríguez, 2004. "Cambios en la diferenciación de los ingresos de la población del Gran Córdoba entre 1992 y 2000 según el género y nivel de escolaridad," Revista de Economía y Estadística, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Instituto de Economía y Finanzas, vol. 0(1), pages 115-139, January.
  333. Biterman, Danuta & Gustafsson, Björn Anders & Österberg, Torun, 2007. "Economic and Ethnic Polarisation among Children in Sweden’s Three Metropolitan Areas," IZA Discussion Papers 3185, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  334. Valeria Rueda & Guillaume Laval & Etienne Patin, 2016. "Achieving the American Dream: Cultural Distance, Cultural Diversity and Economic Performance," Oxford University Economic and Social History Series _140, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
  335. Montalvo, Jose G. & Reynal-Querol, Marta, 2007. "Ethnic polarization and the duration of civil wars," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4192, The World Bank.
  336. Joan Esteban & Carlos Gradín & Debraj Ray, 2007. "An Extension of a Measure of Polarization, with an application to the income distribution of five OECD countries," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 5(1), pages 1-19, April.
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  338. Kakwani, Nanak & Silber, Jacques, 2008. "Introduction: Multidimensional Poverty Analysis: Conceptual Issues, Empirical Illustrations and Policy Implications," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 987-991, June.
  339. Fernando Borraz & Nicolás González & Máximo Rossi, 2013. "Polarization and the Middle Class in Uruguay," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 50(2), pages 289-326, November.
  340. Christoph A. Schaltegger & Christoph Gorgas, 2014. "Wie entwickelt sich die Schweizer Mittelschicht?," CREMA Working Paper Series 2014-11, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).
  341. Ferroni, Marco & Mateo, Mercedes & Payne, Mark, 2008. "Development under conditions of inequality and distrust: Social cohesion in Latin America," IFPRI discussion papers 777, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  342. Fedorov, Leonid, 2002. "Regional Inequality and Regional Polarization in Russia, 1990-99," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 443-456, March.
  343. repec:old:wpaper:352 is not listed on IDEAS
  344. Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra, 2001. "Twin Peaks: Convergence Empirics of Economic Growth across Indian States," WIDER Working Paper Series 142, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  345. Guido Cozzi & Fabio Privileggi, 2002. "Wealth Polarization and Pulverization in Fractal Societies," ICER Working Papers - Applied Mathematics Series 39-2002, ICER - International Centre for Economic Research.
  346. Ronelle Burger & Cindy Lee Steenekamp & Servaas van der Berg & Asmus Zoch, 2014. "The middle class in contemporary South Africa: Comparing rival approaches," Working Papers 11/2014, Stellenbosch University, Department of Economics.
  347. Guangming Lv & Yang Wang & Yongsheng Xu, 2015. "On a new class of measures for health inequality based on ordinal data," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 13(3), pages 465-477, September.
  348. Jorge Alcalde-Unzu & Marc Vorsatz, 2013. "Measuring the cohesiveness of preferences: an axiomatic analysis," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer;The Society for Social Choice and Welfare, vol. 41(4), pages 965-988, October.
  349. Cole, Matthew A. & Elliott, Robert J.R. & Khemmarat, Khemrutai, 2013. "Local exposure to toxic releases: Examining the role of ethnic fractionalization and polarisation," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 249-259.
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  351. José Garcia Montalvo & Marta Reynal-Querol, 2002. "Why ethnic fractionalization? Polarization, ethnic conflict and growth," Economics Working Papers 660, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Sep 2002.
  352. Fujita, M. & Weber, S., 2010. "Immigration Quotas in the Globalized Economy," Journal of the New Economic Association, New Economic Association, issue 7, pages 10-23.
  353. Enrique Lopez Bazo & Esther Vaya Valcarce & Antonio Jose Mora & Jordi Surinach Caralt, 1997. "Regional economic dynamics and convergence in the european union," Working Papers in Economics 12, Universitat de Barcelona. Espai de Recerca en Economia.
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