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Modes, weighted modes, and calibrated modes: evidence of clustering using modality tests


  • Daniel J. Henderson

    (Department of Economics, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, USA)

  • Christopher F. Parmeter

    (Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA)

  • R. Robert Russell

    (Department of Economics, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA)


We apply recent results from the statistics literature to test for multimodality of worldwide distributions of several (unweighted and population-weighted) measures of labor productivity. Specifically, we employ Silverman (Bump) and Dip modality tests, calibrated to correct for their incorrect asymptotic levels. We show that test results are sensitive to the test statistic employed and to population weighting. But regardless of the statistical criterion used, multimodality is present throughout, or emerges during, our sample period (1960-2000). We also examine (a) movements of economies between modal clusters and (b) relationships between certain key development factors and multimodality of the productivity distribution. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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  • Daniel J. Henderson & Christopher F. Parmeter & R. Robert Russell, 2008. "Modes, weighted modes, and calibrated modes: evidence of clustering using modality tests," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(5), pages 607-638.
  • Handle: RePEc:jae:japmet:v:23:y:2008:i:5:p:607-638
    DOI: 10.1002/jae.1023

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    2. Cavallo, Alberto & Rigobon, Roberto, 2011. "The Distribution of the Size of Price Changes," Working Papers 2011-011, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú.
    3. Fabio Clementi & Francesco Schettino, 2013. "Income polarization in Brazil, 2001-2011: A distributional analysis using PNAD data," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 33(3), pages 1796-1815.
    4. Falko Juessen, 2009. "A distribution dynamics approach to regional GDP convergence in unified Germany," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 37(3), pages 627-652, December.
    5. Henderson, Daniel J. & Tochkov, Kiril & Badunenko, Oleg, 2007. "A drive up the capital coast? Contributions to post-reform growth across Chinese provinces," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 569-594, September.
    6. Garance Genicot & Debraj Ray, 2014. "Aspirations and Inequality," NBER Working Papers 19976, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. McAdam, Peter & Christopoulos, Dimitris, 2015. "Efficiency, Inefficiency and the MENA Frontier," Working Paper Series 1757, European Central Bank.
    8. Daniel J. Henderson, 2010. "A test for multimodality of regression derivatives with application to nonparametric growth regressions," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 25(3), pages 458-480.
    9. Davide Fiaschi & Angela Parenti & Davide Fiaschi, 2013. "On the Determinants of Distribution Dynamics," Discussion Papers 2013/165, Dipartimento di Economia e Management (DEM), University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
    10. Alejandro Riaño & Fabrice Defever, 2017. "Twin Peaks," 2017 Meeting Papers 454, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    11. Walheer, Barnabé, 2016. "Growth and convergence of the OECD countries: A multi-sector production-frontier approach," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 252(2), pages 665-675.
    12. Gordon Anderson & Oliver Linton & Teng Leo, 2012. "A polarization-cohesion perspective on cross-country convergence," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 17(1), pages 49-69, March.
    13. Henderson, Daniel J., 2008. "A Test for Multimodality of Regression Derivatives with an Application to Nonparametric Growth Regressions," MPRA Paper 8768, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Giovanni Dosi & Andrea Roventini & Emanuele Russo, 2018. "Endogenous growth and global divergence in a multi-country agent-based model," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE 2018-02, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).
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    17. Oleg Badunenko & Daniel Henderson & R. Russell, 2013. "Polarization of the worldwide distribution of productivity," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 40(2), pages 153-171, October.
    18. Pittau, Maria Grazia & Zelli, Roberto & Johnson, Paul, "undated". "Mixture Models and Convergence Clubs," Vassar College Department of Economics Working Paper Series 91, Vassar College Department of Economics.
    19. Shahram Amini & Michele Battisti & Christopher F. Parmeter, 2011. "Decomposing The Conditional Variance of Cross-Country Output," Working Papers 2011-18, University of Miami, Department of Economics.
    20. Ordás Criado, C. & Grether, J.-M., 2011. "Convergence in per capita CO2 emissions: A robust distributional approach," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 637-665, September.
    21. Defever, Fabrice & Riaño, Alejandro, 2017. "Twin peaks," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 86598, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    22. Oleg Badunenko & Daniel J. Henderson & Valentin Zelenyuk, 2017. "The Productivity of Nations," Working Papers in Economics & Finance 2017-05, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth Business School, Economics and Finance Subject Group.
    23. Răileanu-Szeles, Monica & Albu, Lucian, 2015. "Nonlinearities and divergences in the process of European financial integration," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 416-425.
    24. Giovanni Dosi & Andrea Roventini & Emanuele Russo, 2017. "Endogenous growth and global divergence in a multi-country agent-based model," LEM Papers Series 2017/32, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.

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