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Convergence patterns in financial development: evidence from club convergence

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  • Nicholas Apergis

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  • Christina Christou

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  • Stephen Miller

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Abstract

This article analyzes the degree of convergence of financial development for a panel of 50 countries. We apply the methodology of Phillips and Sul (Econometrica 75:1771–1855, 2007 ) to various indicators of financial development to assess the existence of convergence clubs. We consider ten alternative indicators of financial development that various researchers use to proxy for the degree of financial development in countries. Overall, the results do not support the hypothesis that all countries converge to a single equilibrium state in financial development. Nevertheless, strong evidence exists of club convergence. Countries demonstrate a high degree of convergence in the sense that in the majority of financial indexes they form only two or three convergence clubs, depending on the measure of financial development used. We also apply the Phillips and Sul method to two real variables, per capita output and fixed capital investment to GDP, and find strong evidence of five and four distinct convergence clubs, respectively. Finally, we compare the various convergence clubs associated with financial development indicators to those clubs for per capita output and fixed capital investment to GDP. We conclude that strong evidence supports the correspondence between the convergence clubs for financial development and those two real variables. Copyright Springer-Verlag 2012

Suggested Citation

  • Nicholas Apergis & Christina Christou & Stephen Miller, 2012. "Convergence patterns in financial development: evidence from club convergence," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 43(3), pages 1011-1040, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:empeco:v:43:y:2012:i:3:p:1011-1040 DOI: 10.1007/s00181-011-0522-8
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    Cited by:

    1. Carvallo, Oscar & Kasman, Adnan, 2017. "Convergence in bank performance: Evidence from Latin American banking," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 127-142.
    2. Tian, Xu & Zhang, Xiaoheng & Zhou, Yingheng & Yu, Xiaohua, 2016. "Regional income inequality in China revisited: A perspective from club convergence," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 50-58.
    3. Jac Heckelman & Sandeep Mazumder, 2013. "Are we there yet? On the convergence of financial reforms," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 14(4), pages 385-409, November.
    4. Răileanu-Szeles, Monica & Albu, Lucian, 2015. "Nonlinearities and divergences in the process of European financial integration," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 416-425.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Economic growth; Financial development; Convergence clustering approach; Financial indicators; F43; F32; G21; C33;

    JEL classification:

    • F43 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Economic Growth of Open Economies
    • F32 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Current Account Adjustment; Short-term Capital Movements
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models

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