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Regional convergence clubs in Europe: Identification and conditioning factors

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  • Bartkowska, Monika
  • Riedl, Aleksandra

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to empirically identify convergence clubs in per capita incomes of European regions and to investigate whether initial conditions − as suggested by the club convergence hypothesis − are responsible for club formation. To tackle this issue, we propose a two-step procedure in which we first endogenously identify groups of regions that converge to the same steady state level, and in a second step we investigate the role of starting conditions and structural characteristics for a region's club membership. Our sample comprises 206 European NUTS2 regions between 1990 and 2002. The results strongly support the existence of convergence clubs, indicating that European regions form six separate groups converging to their own steady state paths. Moreover, estimates from an ordered logit model reveal that the level of initial conditions such as human capital and per capita income plays a crucial role in determining the formation of convergence clubs among European regions.

Suggested Citation

  • Bartkowska, Monika & Riedl, Aleksandra, 2012. "Regional convergence clubs in Europe: Identification and conditioning factors," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 22-31.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecmode:v:29:y:2012:i:1:p:22-31 DOI: 10.1016/j.econmod.2011.01.013
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    Cited by:

    1. A. Bergeaud & G. Cette & R. Lecat, 2015. "GDP per capita in advanced countries over the 20th century," Working papers 549, Banque de France.
    2. Forte, Anabel & Peiró-Palomino, Jesús & Tortosa-Ausina, Emili, 2015. "Does social capital matter for European regional growth?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 47-64.
    3. Paolo Postiglione & M. Andreano & Roberto Benedetti, 2013. "Using Constrained Optimization for the Identification of Convergence Clubs," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 42(2), pages 151-174, August.
    4. Manfred M. Fischer & James P. LeSage, 2015. "A Bayesian space-time approach to identifying and interpreting regional convergence clubs in Europe," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 94(4), pages 677-702, November.
    5. Francesco Aiello & Fernanda Ricotta, 2014. "Firm heterogeneity in productivity across Europe. What explains what?," ERSA conference papers ersa14p808, European Regional Science Association.
    6. Aleksandra Parteka & Joanna Wolszczak-Derlacz, 2015. "Integrated sectors - diversified earnings: the (missing) impact of offshoring on wages and wage convergence in the EU27," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 13(3), pages 325-350, September.
    7. Burnett, J. Wesley, 2016. "Club convergence and clustering of U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 62-84.
    8. Giovanni Perucca, 2013. "Aredefinition of italian macro-areas: the role of territorial capital," RIVISTA DI ECONOMIA E STATISTICA DEL TERRITORIO, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2013(2), pages 37-65.
    9. Serge Rey & Florent Deisting, 2012. "GDP per Capita among African Countries over the Period 1950–2008: Highlights of Convergence Clubs," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 32(4), pages 2779-2800.
    10. Don J. Webber & Min-Hua Jen & Eoin O'Leary, 2014. "Regional productivity in a multi-speed Europe," Working Papers 20141408, Department of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Bristol Business School, University of the West of England, Bristol.
    11. Nicholas Apergis & Christina Christou & Stephen Miller, 2012. "Convergence patterns in financial development: evidence from club convergence," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 43(3), pages 1011-1040, December.
    12. Lucian Liviu Albu, 2016. "Trends in the relation between regional convergence and economic growth in EU," Working Papers of Institute for Economic Forecasting 161101, Institute for Economic Forecasting.
    13. Xuan-Binh Vu & Son Nghiem, 2016. "Analysis of GDP trends and inequalities in Vietnam`s provinces and groups of provinces," Asian Journal of Empirical Research, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 6(7), pages 167-186, July.
    14. González-Val, Rafael & Marcén, Miriam, 2014. "Club classification of US divorce rates," MPRA Paper 59440, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Montañés, Antonio & Olmos, Lorena & Reyes, Marcelo, 2016. "Does crisis affect convergence process? The case of the Spanish provinces," MPRA Paper 69543, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Martin Victor & Vazquez Guillermo, 2015. "Club convergence in Latin America," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 15(2), pages 791-820, July.
    17. Niţoi, Mihai & Pochea, Maria Miruna, 2016. "Testing financial markets convergence in Central and Eastern Europe: A non-linear single factor model," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 323-334.
    18. Mihaela Simionescu, 2015. "About regional convergence clubs in the European Union," Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci/Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, University of Rijeka, Faculty of Economics, vol. 33(1), pages 67-80.
    19. Castillo-Manzano, José I. & Castro-Nuño, Mercedes & Pedregal, Diego J., 2014. "The trend towards convergence in road accident fatality rates in Europe: The contributions of non-economic variables," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 229-240.
    20. repec:spr:qualqt:v:51:y:2017:i:6:d:10.1007_s11135-016-0415-1 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Club convergence hypothesis; Conditioning factors; European regions; Log t test; Logit model;

    JEL classification:

    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • F02 - International Economics - - General - - - International Economic Order and Integration
    • O40 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - General
    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes

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