An analysis of income polarization in rural and urban China
The purpose of this article is to contribute to the analysis of Chinese income inequality by focusing more specifically on income polarization, which captures both alienation (i.e. heterogeneity between income groups) and identification (i.e. homogeneity within groups). The empirical investigations conducted as part of this research are based on the China Health and Nutrition Survey data from 1989 to 2006 and indicate that Chinese household income is strongly polarized. After a period of stagnation between 1989 and 1997, the degree of polarization increased significantly between 1997 and 2006, indicating the constitution of identified groups in middle and upper income ranges. Although the level of income polarization is higher in rural areas, the increase in polarization is far more conspicuous in urban areas, suggesting that the risk of social tensions is more pregnant in Chinese cities. The analysis of the sources of income polarization in rural areas shows that the increase in polarization is closely linked to non agricultural opportunities. In urban areas, the emergence of identified groups in middle and upper income classes can be explained both by the sharp decline in subsidies and by the liberalization of the urban labor market and state enterprises.
|Date of creation:||2011|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +33 (0)18.104.22.168.75
Fax: +33 (0)22.214.171.124.47
Web page: http://gretha.u-bordeaux4.fr/Email:
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Esteban, J. & Ray, D., 1993.
"On the Measurement of Polarization,"
UFAE and IAE Working Papers
221.93, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
- Esteban, J.M. & Ray, D., 1992. "On the Measurement of Polarization," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 171.92, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
- Joan-Maria Esteban & Debraj Ray, 1991. "On the Measurement of Polarization," Boston University - Institute for Economic Development 18, Boston University, Institute for Economic Development.
- Guanghua Wan & Zhangyue Zhou, 2005.
"Income Inequality in Rural China: Regression-based Decomposition Using Household Data,"
Review of Development Economics,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(1), pages 107-120, 02.
- Wan, Guanghua & Zhou, Zhangyue, 2004. "Income Inequality in Rural China: Regression-based Decomposition Using Household Data," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
- Jenkins, Stephen P., 1995. "Did the middle class shrink during the 1980s? UK evidence from kernel density estimates," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 49(4), pages 407-413, October.
- Gradin, Carlos, 2000. "Polarization by Sub-populations in Spain, 1973-91," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 46(4), pages 457-74, December.
- Keith Griffin & Azizur Rahman Khan & Carl Riskin, 1999. "Income Distribution in Urban China during the Period of Economic Reform and Globalization," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 296-300, May.
- Dwayne Benjamin & Loren Brandt & John Giles, 2004.
"The Evolution of Income Inequality in Rural China,"
William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series
2004-654, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Xin Meng, 2004. "Economic Restructuring and Income Inequality in Urban China," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 50(3), pages 357-379, 09.
- Kai-yuen, Tsui, 1998. "Factor Decomposition of Chinese Rural Income Inequality: New Methodology, Empirical Findings, and Policy Implications," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 502-528, September.
- Chen, Xi & Zhang, Xiaobo, 2009. "The Distribution of Income and Well-Being in Rural China: A Survey of Panel Data Sets, Studies and New Directions," MPRA Paper 20587, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Sylvie Demurger & Martin Fournier & Shi Li, 2006.
"Urban income inequality in China revisited (1988–2002),"
- Demurger, Sylvie & Fournier, Martin & Li, Shi, 2006. "Urban income inequality in China revisited (1988-2002)," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 93(3), pages 354-359, December.
- Sylvie Demurger & Martin Fournier & Shi Li, 2006. "Urban income inequality in China revisited, 1988-2002," Post-Print halshs-00372106, HAL.
- Leonardo Gasparini & Matías Horenstein & Sergio Olivieri, 2006. "Economic Polarisation in Latin America and the Caribbean: What do Household Surveys Tell Us?," CEDLAS, Working Papers 0038, CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
- Marron, J.S. & Schmitz, H.-P., 1992. "Simultaneous Density Estimation of Several Income Distributions," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(04), pages 476-488, December.
- Sicular, Terry & Yue, Ximing & Gustafsson, Bjorn & Li, Shi, 2006.
"The Urban-Rural Income Gap and Inequality in China,"
Working Paper Series
RP2006/135, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
- Terry Sicular & Yue Ximing & Björn Gustafsson & Li Shi, 2007. "The Urban-Rural Income Gap And Inequality In China," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 53(1), pages 93-126, 03.
- Jean-Yves Duclos & Joan Esteban & Debraj Ray, 2003.
"Polarization: Concepts, Measurement, Estimation,"
46, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
- Xiaolan Fu & V. N. Balasubramanyam, 2003.
"Township and Village Enterprises in China,"
Journal of Development Studies,
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(4), pages 27-46.
- Joan Esteban & Carlos Gradín & Debraj Ray, 2007. "An Extension of a Measure of Polarization, with an application to the income distribution of five OECD countries," Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 1-19, April.
- Kanbur, Ravi & Zhang, Xiaobo, 1999. "Which Regional Inequality? The Evolution of Rural-Urban and Inland-Coastal Inequality in China from 1983 to 1995," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 686-701, December.
- Renard, Mary-Francoise, 2002. "A pessimistic view on the impact of regional inequalities," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 341-344, December.
- Dwayne Benjamin & Loren Brandt & John Giles & Sangui Wang, 2005. "Income Inequality During China's Economic Transition," Working Papers tecipa-238, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
- Abdelkrim Araar, 2008. "On the Decomposition of Polarization Indices: Illustrations with Chinese and Nigerian Household Surveys," Cahiers de recherche 0806, CIRPEE.
- Isaias H. Salgado-Ugarte & Marco A. Perez-Hernandez, 2003. "Exploring the use of variable bandwidth kernel density estimators," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 3(2), pages 133-147, June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:grt:wpegrt:2011-26. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Emmanuel Petit)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.