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The Determinants of Income Polarization on the Household and Country Level across the EU

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  • Mario Holzner

    () (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)

Abstract

A multi-level approach to test for the determinants of income polarization both at the household as well as the country level is applied to a panel of about 300,000 households in EU countries over the period of 2003-2009. Among the policy relevant macro variables, higher progressive labour taxation and to a certain extent capital taxation is positively correlated with lower levels of income polarization. Also public expenditures on social protection, education and economic subsidies are related to a lower degree of polarization. Finally, lower unemployment, a stronger industrial base and more trade openness are also associated with lower levels of polarization.

Suggested Citation

  • Mario Holzner, 2012. "The Determinants of Income Polarization on the Household and Country Level across the EU," wiiw Working Papers 93, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
  • Handle: RePEc:wii:wpaper:93
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    government expenditures; taxes; income polarization; multi-level model;

    JEL classification:

    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
    • H5 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies

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