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Income Mixing and Housing in U.S. Cities: Evidence from Neighborhood Clusters of the American Housing Survey

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  • Anna Hardman
  • Yannis Ioannides

Abstract

The paper describes within-neighborhood economic segregation in U.S. metropolitan areas in 1985 and 1993. It uses the neighborhood clusters of the American Housing Survey, standardized by metropolitan area income and household size, to explore income distribution within neighborhoods at a scale much smaller than the census tract (a representative sample of households or ‘kernels’ and their ten closest neighbors). Joint and conditional distributions portray neighbors’ characteristics conditional on the kernel’s housing tenure, race and income. The paper documents both significant income mixing in the majority of US urban micro neighborhoods and the extent of income mixing within neighborhoods of concentrated poverty.

Suggested Citation

  • Anna Hardman & Yannis Ioannides, 2004. "Income Mixing and Housing in U.S. Cities: Evidence from Neighborhood Clusters of the American Housing Survey," Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University 0420, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
  • Handle: RePEc:tuf:tuftec:0420
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Katharine Bradbury, 1996. "Growing inequality of family incomes: changing families and changing wages," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue Jul, pages 55-82.
    2. Esteban, Joan & Ray, Debraj, 1994. "On the Measurement of Polarization," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(4), pages 819-851, July.
    3. Christopher J. Mayer, 1996. "Does location matter?," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue May, pages 26-40.
    4. Jill Khadduri & Kathryn P. Nelson, 1992. "Targeting housing assistance," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(1), pages 21-41.
    5. Ioannides, Yannis M., 2002. "Residential neighborhood effects," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 145-165, March.
    6. Gabriel, Stuart A. & Rosenthal, Stuart S., 1999. "Location and the effect of demographic traits on earnings," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 445-461, July.
    7. Vandell Kerry D., 1994. "Market Factors Affecting Spacial Heterogeneity Among Urban Neighborhoods," Wisconsin-Madison CULER working papers 94-11, University of Wisconsin Center for Urban Land Economic Research.
    8. Schelling, Thomas C, 1969. "Models of Segregation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(2), pages 488-493, May.
    9. Hoyt, William H. & Rosenthal, Stuart S., 1997. "Household Location and Tiebout: Do Families Sort According to Preferences for Locational Amenities?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 159-178, September.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Kiel, Katherine A. & Zabel, Jeffrey E., 2008. "Location, location, location: The 3L Approach to house price determination," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 175-190, June.
    2. Mark Montgomery & Paul Hewett, 2005. "Urban poverty and health in developing countries: Household and neighborhood Effects," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 42(3), pages 397-425, August.
    3. Hardman, Anna & Ioannides, Yannis M., 2004. "Neighbors' income distribution: economic segregation and mixing in US urban neighborhoods," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 368-382, December.
    4. Ioannides, Yannis M., 2002. "Residential neighborhood effects," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 145-165, March.
    5. Ioannides, Yannis M. & Seslen, Tracey N., 2002. "Neighborhood wealth distributions," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 76(3), pages 357-367, August.
    6. Ioannides, Yannis M., 2003. "Interactive property valuations," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 145-170, January.
    7. Daniel Richards, 2004. "Price Discrimination and the Long Boom," Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University 0419, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
    8. Mark Montgomery & Monica Grant & Barbara Mensch & Rania Roushdy, 2005. "Children's Schooling in Developing-Country Slums: A Comparison of Egypt and India," Department of Economics Working Papers 05-07, Stony Brook University, Department of Economics.

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