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Neighborhood income distributions

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  • Ioannides, Yannis M.

Abstract

This paper studies purely empirically aspects of the distribution of income within small neighborhoods and contrasts it with the income distribution at higher level of aggregation, such as census tracts and metropolitan areas. It relies on a unique feature of the American Housing Survey, whose 1985, 1989 and 1993 waves provide data for small residential neighborhoods. These consist of a dwelling unit and up to ten of its nearest neighbors. The paper employs several parametric and nonparametric econometric tools to measure income sorting in US residential neighborhoods. It documents the patterns of dependence among neighbors’ income and imperfect sorting, with moderate but very significant correlation among incomes of neighbors and of considerable income mixing in U.S. neighborhoods. These results persist even if choice-based sampling and heterogeneity across the sample are accounted for. Neighborhoods associated with a randomly selected renter are more sorted than those associated with an owner even though such owners are more likely to define their neighborhoods.
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  • Ioannides, Yannis M., 2004. "Neighborhood income distributions," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(3), pages 435-457, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:juecon:v:56:y:2004:i:3:p:435-457
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Ioannides, Yannis M. & Seslen, Tracey N., 2002. "Neighborhood wealth distributions," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 76(3), pages 357-367, August.
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    18. Ioannides, Yannis M., 2003. "Interactive property valuations," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 145-170, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Clapp, John M. & Wang, Yazhen, 2006. "Defining neighborhood boundaries: Are census tracts obsolete?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(2), pages 259-284, March.
    2. Chadha, R. & Brown, D.K. & Deardorff, A.V. & Stern, R.M., 2000. "Computational Analysis of the Impact on India of the Uruguay Round and the Forthcoming WTO Trade Negotiations," Working Papers 459, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
    3. Ioannides, Yannis M., 2002. "Residential neighborhood effects," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 145-165, March.
    4. Leung, Tin Cheuk & Tsang, Kwok Ping, 2012. "Love thy neighbor: Income distribution and housing preferences," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 322-335.
    5. Ioannides, Yannis M. & Seslen, Tracey N., 2002. "Neighborhood wealth distributions," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 76(3), pages 357-367, August.
    6. Haavio, Markus & Kauppi, Heikki, 2009. "House price fluctuations and residential sorting," Research Discussion Papers 14/2009, Bank of Finland.
    7. François Ortalo-Magné & Sven Rady, "undated". "Homeownership: Volatile Housing Prices, Low Labor Mobility and High Income Dispersion," Wisconsin-Madison CULER working papers 02-04, University of Wisconsin Center for Urban Land Economic Research.
    8. Christoph Basten & Maximilian Ehrlich & Andrea Lassmann, 2017. "Income Taxes, Sorting and the Costs of Housing: Evidence from Municipal Boundaries in Switzerland," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 0(601), pages 653-687, May.
    9. Tara Watson, 2009. "Inequality And The Measurement Of Residential Segregation By Income In American Neighborhoods," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 55(3), pages 820-844, September.
    10. George Norman & Lynne Pepall & Dan Richards, 2001. "Versioning, Brand-Stretching, and the Evolution of e-Commerce Markets," Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University 0114, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
    11. Albouy, David & Lue, Bert, 2015. "Driving to opportunity: Local rents, wages, commuting, and sub-metropolitan quality of life," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 74-92.
    12. Christopher H. Wheeler & Elizabeth A. La Jeunesse, 2007. "Neighborhood income inequality," Working Papers 2006-039, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    13. Ortalo-Magné, François & Rady, Sven, 2008. "Heterogeneity within communities: A stochastic model with tenure choice," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 1-17, July.
    14. Christopher H. Wheeler, 2008. "Urban decentralization and income inequality: is sprawl associated with rising income segregation across neighborhoods?," Regional Economic Development, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Oct, pages 41-57.
    15. Ioannides, Yannis M., 2003. "Interactive property valuations," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 145-170, January.
    16. Roland Hodler & Kurt Schmidheiny, 2006. "How Fiscal Decentralization Flattens Progressive Taxes," FinanzArchiv: Public Finance Analysis, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 62(2), pages 281-304, June.
    17. Christoph Basten & Maximilian von Ehrlich & Andrea Lassmann, 2014. "Income Taxes, Sorting, and the Costs of Housing," KOF Working papers 14-362, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.
    18. Schmidheiny, Kurt, 2006. "Income segregation from local income taxation when households differ in both preferences and incomes," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 270-299, March.
    19. Christopher H. Wheeler & Elizabeth A. La Jeunesse, 2008. "Trends In Neighborhood Income Inequality In The U.S.: 1980-2000," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(5), pages 879-891.
    20. Marcus Roller & Kurt Schmidheiny, 2014. "Mobility and Progressive Taxation," ERSA conference papers ersa14p1354, European Regional Science Association.
    21. Yannis M. Ioannides & Jeffrey E. Zabel, 2003. "Neighbourhood effects and housing demand," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(5), pages 563-584.
    22. Sven Rady, 2002. "Homeownership: Low household mobility, volatile housing prices, high income dispersion," FMG Discussion Papers dp432, Financial Markets Group.
    23. Yinger, John, 2015. "Hedonic markets and sorting equilibria: Bid-function envelopes for public services and neighborhood amenities," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 9-25.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General

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