Cross-country polarisation in CO2 emissions per capita in the European Union: changes and explanatory factors
In this study, we analyse the degree of polarisation—a concept fundamentally different from that of inequality—in the international distribution of CO2 emissions per capita in the European Union. It is analytically relevant to examine the degree of instability inherent to a distribution and, in the analysed case, the likelihood that the distribution and its evolution will increase or decrease the chances of reaching an agreement. Two approaches were used to measure polarisation: the endogenous approach, in which countries are grouped according to their similarity in terms of emissions, and the exogenous approach, in which countries are grouped geographically. Our findings indicate a clear decrease in polarisation since the mid-1990s, which can essentially be explained by the fact that the different groups of countries have converged (i.e. antagonism among the CO2 emitters has decreased) as the contribution of energy intensity to between-group differences has decreased. This lower degree of polarisation in CO2 distribution suggests a situation more conducive to the possibility of reaching EU-wide agreements on the mitigation of CO2 emissions.
|Date of creation:||May 2011|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Campus Bellaterra. 08193 Bellaterra.|
Phone: 34-93 581 1680
Fax: 34-93 581 2292
Web page: http://www.uab.cat/departament/economia-aplicada/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Antonio Duro, Juan, 2010. "Decomposing international polarization of per capita CO2 emissions," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(11), pages 6529-6533, November.
- Duro, Juan Antonio, 2005. "Another look to income polarization across countries," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 27(9), pages 1001-1007, December.
- Shorrocks, Anthony F, 1984. "Inequality Decomposition by Population Subgroups," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(6), pages 1369-85, November.
- Bianchi, Marco, 1997. "Testing for Convergence: Evidence from Non-parametric Multimodality Tests," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(4), pages 393-409, July-Aug..
- Zhang, Siao-Bo & Kanbur, Ravi, 1999.
"What Difference Do Polarization Measures Make? An Application To China,"
7224, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
- X. Zhang & R. Kanbur, 2001. "What Difference Do Polarisation Measures Make? An Application to China," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(3), pages 85-98.
- Shorrocks, A F, 1980. "The Class of Additively Decomposable Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(3), pages 613-25, April.
- Wang, You-Qiang & Tsui, Kai-Yuen, 2000. " Polarization Orderings and New Classes of Polarization Indices," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 2(3), pages 349-63.
- Wolfson, Michael C, 1997. "Divergent Inequalities: Theory and Empirical Results," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 43(4), pages 401-21, December.
- Joan-Maria Esteban & Debraj Ray, 1991.
"On the Measurement of Polarization,"
Boston University - Institute for Economic Development
18, Boston University, Institute for Economic Development.
- Esteban, J.M. & Ray, D., 1992. "On the Measurement of Polarization," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 171.92, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
- Esteban, J. & Ray, D., 1993. "On the Measurement of Polarization," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 221.93, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
- Duro, Juan Antonio & Padilla, Emilio, 2008. "Analysis of the international distribution of per capita CO2 emissions using the polarization concept," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 456-466, January.
- Ezcurra, Roberto, 2007. "Is there cross-country convergence in carbon dioxide emissions?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 1363-1372, February.
- Duro, Juan Antonio & Padilla, Emilio, 2006. "International inequalities in per capita CO2 emissions: A decomposition methodology by Kaya factors," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 170-187, March.
- Emilio Padilla & Juan Antonio Duro, 2011.
"Explanatory Factors Of Co2 Per Capita Emission Inequality In The European Union,"
wpdea1107, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
- Padilla, Emilio & Duro, Juan Antonio, 2013. "Explanatory factors of CO2 per capita emission inequality in the European Union," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 1320-1328.
- Quah, Danny T, 1997. "Empirics for Growth and Distribution: Stratification, Polarization, and Convergence Clubs," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 2(1), pages 27-59, March.
- Peter C. B. Phillips & Donggyu Sul, 2007.
"Transition Modeling and Econometric Convergence Tests,"
Econometric Society, vol. 75(6), pages 1771-1855, November.
- Peter C.B. Phillips & Donggyu Sul, 2007. "Transition Modeling and Econometric Convergence Tests," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1595, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Wolfson, Michael C, 1994. "When Inequalities Diverge," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(2), pages 353-58, May.
- Hedenus, Fredrik & Azar, Christian, 2005. "Estimates of trends in global income and resource inequalities," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 351-364, November.
- Joan Esteban & Carlos Gradín & Debraj Ray, 2007. "An Extension of a Measure of Polarization, with an application to the income distribution of five OECD countries," Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 1-19, April.
- Quah, Danny, 1997. "Empirics for Growth and Distribution: Stratification, Polarization, and Convergence Clubs," CEPR Discussion Papers 1586, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Roberto Ezcurra & Pedro Pascual & Manuel Rapún, 2007. "Spatial disparities in the European Union: an analysis of regional polarization," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 41(2), pages 401-429, June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:uab:wprdea:wpdea1106. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Miquel Colobran)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.