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Explanatory Factors Of Co2 Per Capita Emission Inequality In The European Union

  • Emilio Padilla


    (Departament d'Economia Aplicada, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona)

  • Juan Antonio Duro


    (Department of Economics and CREIP, Univ. Rovira i Virgili)

The design of European mitigation policies requires a detailed examination of the factors explaining the unequal emissions in the different countries. This research analyzes the evolution of inequality in CO2 per capita emissions in the European Union (EU-27) in the 1990–2006 period and its explanatory factors. For this purpose, we decompose the Theil index of inequality into the contributions of the different Kaya factors. The decomposition is also applied to the inequality between and within groups of countries (North Europe, South Europe, and East Europe). The analysis shows an important reduction in inequality, to a large extent due to the smaller differences between groups and because of the lower contribution of the energy intensity factor. The importance of the GDP per capita factor increases and becomes the main explanatory factor. However, within the different groups of countries the carbonization index appears to be the most relevant factor in explaining inequalities.

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Paper provided by Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona in its series Working Papers with number wpdea1107.

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Length: 25 pages
Date of creation: May 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:uab:wprdea:wpdea1107
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  1. Padilla, Emilio & Serrano, Alfredo, 2006. "Inequality in CO2 emissions across countries and its relationship with income inequality: A distributive approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(14), pages 1762-1772, September.
  2. Juan Antonio Duro, 2003. "Factor decomposition of spatial income inequality: a revision," Working Papers wpdea0302, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
  3. Duro, Juan Antonio & Padilla, Emilio, 2008. "Analysis of the international distribution of per capita CO2 emissions using the polarization concept," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 456-466, January.
  4. Cantore, Nicola, 2011. "Distributional aspects of emissions in climate change integrated assessment models," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 2919-2924, May.
  5. Jobert, Thomas & Karanfil, Fatih & Tykhonenko, Anna, 2010. "Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in the EU: Legend or reality?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1364-1373, November.
  6. Duro, Juan Antonio & Padilla, Emilio, 2006. "International inequalities in per capita CO2 emissions: A decomposition methodology by Kaya factors," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 170-187, March.
  7. Vicent Alcántara Escolano & Emilio Padilla Rosa, 2005. "Análisis de las emisiones de CO2 y sus factores explicativos en las diferentes áreas del mundo," Revista de Economía Crítica, Asociación de Economía Crítica, vol. 4, pages 17-37.
  8. Bourguignon, Francois, 1979. "Decomposable Income Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(4), pages 901-20, July.
  9. Hedenus, Fredrik & Azar, Christian, 2005. "Estimates of trends in global income and resource inequalities," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 351-364, November.
  10. Alcantara, Vicent & Duro, Juan Antonio, 2004. "Inequality of energy intensities across OECD countries: a note," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(11), pages 1257-1260, July.
  11. Cantore, Nicola & Padilla, Emilio, 2010. "Equality and CO2 emissions distribution in climate change integrated assessment modelling," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 298-313.
  12. Juan Antonio Duro & Emilio Padilla, 2011. "Cross-country polarisation in CO2 emissions per capita in the European Union: changes and explanatory factors," Working Papers wpdea1106, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
  13. Duro, Juan Antonio & Alcántara, Vicent & Padilla, Emilio, 2010. "International inequality in energy intensity levels and the role of production composition and energy efficiency: An analysis of OECD countries," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(12), pages 2468-2474, October.
  14. Mark Heil & Quentin Wodon, 2000. "Future Inequality in CO2 Emissions and the Impact of Abatement Proposals," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 17(2), pages 163-181, October.
  15. Nicola Cantore & Emilio Padilla, 2009. "Emissions distribution in post–Kyoto international negotiations: a policy perspective," Working Papers wpdea0907, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
  16. Daniel Millimet & Daniel Slottje, 2002. "An environmental Paglin-Gini," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(4), pages 271-274.
  17. Shorrocks, A F, 1980. "The Class of Additively Decomposable Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(3), pages 613-25, April.
  18. Groot, Loek, 2010. "Carbon Lorenz curves," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 45-64, January.
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