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Inequality across countries in energy intensities: An analysis of the role of energy transformation and final energy consumption

  • Duro, Juan Antonio
  • Padilla, Emilio

This paper analyzes the role of the energy transformation index and of final energy consumption per GDP unit in the disparities in energy intensity across countries. In that vein, we use a Theil decomposition approach to analyze global primary energy intensity inequality as well as inequality across different regions of the world and inequality within these regions. The paper first demonstrates the pre-eminence of divergence in final energy consumption per GDP unit in explaining global primary energy intensity inequality and its evolution during the 1971-2006 period. Secondly, it shows the lower (albeit non negligible) impact of the transformation index in global primary energy inequality. Thirdly, the relevance of regions as unit of analysis in studying cross-country energy intensity inequality and their explanatory factors is highlighted. And finally, how regions around the world differ as to the relevance of the energy transformation index in explaining primary energy intensity inequality.

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Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Energy Economics.

Volume (Year): 33 (2011)
Issue (Month): 3 (May)
Pages: 474-479

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Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:33:y:2011:i:3:p:474-479
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/eneco

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  1. Sun, J. W., 2002. "The decrease in the difference of energy intensities between OECD countries from 1971 to 1998," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(8), pages 631-635, June.
  2. Miketa, Asami & Mulder, Peter, 2005. "Energy productivity across developed and developing countries in 10 manufacturing sectors: Patterns of growth and convergence," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 429-453, May.
  3. Nicola Cantore & Emilio Padilla, 2007. "Equity and CO2 emissions distribution in climate change integrated assessment modelling," DEIAgra Working Papers 7001, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Department of Agricultural Economics and Engineering, revised May 2007.
  4. Duro, Juan Antonio & Padilla, Emilio, 2006. "International inequalities in per capita CO2 emissions: A decomposition methodology by Kaya factors," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 170-187, March.
  5. Juan Antonio Duro, 2003. "Factor decomposition of spatial income inequality: a revision," Working Papers wpdea0302, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
  6. L.F.M. Groot, 2008. "Carbon Lorenz Curves," Working Papers 08-33, Utrecht School of Economics.
  7. Duro, Juan Antonio & Alcántara, Vicent & Padilla, Emilio, 2010. "International inequality in energy intensity levels and the role of production composition and energy efficiency: An analysis of OECD countries," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(12), pages 2468-2474, October.
  8. Vicent Alcántara Escolano & Emilio Padilla Rosa, 2005. "Análisis de las emisiones de CO2 y sus factores explicativos en las diferentes áreas del mundo," Revista de Economía Crítica, Asociación de Economía Crítica, vol. 4, pages 17-37.
  9. Emilio Padilla & Alfredo Serrano, 2005. "Inequality in CO2 emissions across countries and its relationship with income inequality: a distributive approach," Working Papers wpdea0503, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
  10. Shorrocks, A F, 1980. "The Class of Additively Decomposable Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(3), pages 613-25, April.
  11. Duro, Juan Antonio & Padilla, Emilio, 2008. "Analysis of the international distribution of per capita CO2 emissions using the polarization concept," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 456-466, January.
  12. Nicola Cantore & Emilio Padilla, 2009. "Emissions distribution in post–Kyoto international negotiations: a policy perspective," Working Papers wpdea0907, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
  13. Alcantara, Vicent & Duro, Juan Antonio, 2004. "Inequality of energy intensities across OECD countries: a note," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(11), pages 1257-1260, July.
  14. Hamilton, Clive & Turton, Hal, 2002. "Determinants of emissions growth in OECD countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 63-71, January.
  15. Hedenus, Fredrik & Azar, Christian, 2005. "Estimates of trends in global income and resource inequalities," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 351-364, November.
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