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Inequality across countries in energy intensities: an analysis of the role of energy transformation and final energy consumption

  • Juan Antonio Duro


    (Departament d'Economia, Universidad Rovira i Virgili)

  • Emilio Padilla


    (Departament d'Economia Aplicada, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona)

This paper analyzes the role of the energy transformation index and of final energy consumption per GDP unit in the disparities in energy intensity across countries. In that vein, we use a Theil decomposition approach to analyze global primary energy intensity inequality as well as inequality across different regions of the world and inequality within these regions. The paper first demonstrates the pre-eminence of divergence in final energy consumption per GDP unit in explaining global primary energy intensity inequality and its evolution during the 1971–2006 period. Secondly, it shows the lower (albeit non negligible) impact of the transformation index in global primary energy inequality. Thirdly, the relevance of regions as unit of analysis in studying crosscountry energy intensity inequality and their explanatory factors is highlighted. And finally, how regions around the world differ as to the relevance of the energy transformation index in explaining primary energy intensity inequality.

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Paper provided by Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona in its series Working Papers with number wpdea1008.

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Length: 26 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:uab:wprdea:wpdea1008
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  1. Nicola Cantore & Emilio Padilla, 2009. "Emissions distribution in post–Kyoto international negotiations: a policy perspective," Working Papers wpdea0907, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
  2. Duro, Juan Antonio & Alcántara, Vicent & Padilla, Emilio, 2010. "International inequality in energy intensity levels and the role of production composition and energy efficiency: An analysis of OECD countries," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(12), pages 2468-2474, October.
  3. Miketa, Asami & Mulder, Peter, 2005. "Energy productivity across developed and developing countries in 10 manufacturing sectors: Patterns of growth and convergence," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 429-453, May.
  4. Nicola Cantore & Emilio Padilla, 2007. "Equity and CO2 emissions distribution in climate change integrated assessment modelling," DEIAgra Working Papers 7001, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Department of Agricultural Economics and Engineering, revised May 2007.
  5. Groot, Loek, 2010. "Carbon Lorenz curves," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 45-64, January.
  6. Vicent Alcántara Escolano & Emilio Padilla Rosa, 2005. "Análisis De Las Emisiones De Co2 Y Sus Factores Explicativos En Las Diferentes Áreas Del Mundo," Working Papers wpdea0507, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
  7. Shorrocks, A F, 1980. "The Class of Additively Decomposable Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(3), pages 613-25, April.
  8. Emilio Padilla & Alfredo Serrano, 2005. "Inequality in CO2 emissions across countries and its relationship with income inequality: a distributive approach," Working Papers wpdea0503, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
  9. Juan Antonio Duro, 2003. "Factor decomposition of spatial income inequality: a revision," Working Papers wpdea0302, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
  10. Hamilton, Clive & Turton, Hal, 2002. "Determinants of emissions growth in OECD countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 63-71, January.
  11. Sun, J. W., 2002. "The decrease in the difference of energy intensities between OECD countries from 1971 to 1998," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(8), pages 631-635, June.
  12. Hedenus, Fredrik & Azar, Christian, 2005. "Estimates of trends in global income and resource inequalities," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 351-364, November.
  13. Alcantara, Vicent & Duro, Juan Antonio, 2004. "Inequality of energy intensities across OECD countries: a note," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(11), pages 1257-1260, July.
  14. Duro, Juan Antonio & Padilla, Emilio, 2008. "Analysis of the international distribution of per capita CO2 emissions using the polarization concept," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 456-466, January.
  15. Duro, Juan Antonio & Padilla, Emilio, 2006. "International inequalities in per capita CO2 emissions: A decomposition methodology by Kaya factors," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 170-187, March.
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