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Citations for "Using Electoral Cycles in Police Hiring to Estimate the Effect of Policeon Crime"

by Steven D. Levitt

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  1. Lauridsen, Jørgen T. & Zeren, Fatma & Ari, Ay?E, 2015. "Is Crime in Turkey Economically Rational?/¿Es económicamente racional el crimen en Turquía?," Estudios de Economía Aplicada, Estudios de Economía Aplicada, vol. 33, pages 37-52, Enero.
  2. Patricia Funk & Christina Gathmann, 2009. "Does Direct Democracy Reduce the Size of Government? New Evidence from Historical Data, 1890-2000," CESifo Working Paper Series 2693, CESifo Group Munich.
  3. Shawn A. Cole, 2008. "Fixing Market Failures or Fixing Elections? Agricultural Credit in India," Harvard Business School Working Papers 09-001, Harvard Business School.
  4. Panu Poutvaara & Mikael Priks, 2006. "Hooliganism in the Shadow of the 9/11 Terrorist Attack and the Tsunami: Do Police Reduce Group Violence?," CESifo Working Paper Series 1882, CESifo Group Munich.
  5. Poutvaara, Panu & Priks, Mikael, 2009. "The effect of police intelligence on group violence: Evidence from reassignments in Sweden," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(3-4), pages 403-411, April.
  6. Anna Piil Damm & Christian Dustmann, 2013. "Does Growing Up in a High Crime Neighborhood Affect Youth Criminal Behavior?," Norface Discussion Paper Series 2013025, Norface Research Programme on Migration, Department of Economics, University College London.
  7. H. Naci Mocan & Stephen C. Billups & Jody Overland, 2005. "A Dynamic Model of Differential Human Capital and Criminal Activity," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 72(288), pages 655-681, November.
  8. Ana María Cerro & Osvaldo Meloni, 2000. "Determinants of the crime rate in Argentina during the '90s," Estudios de Economia, University of Chile, Department of Economics, vol. 27(2 Year 20), pages 297-311, December.
  9. Steven D. Levitt, 1995. "The Effect of Prison Population Size on Crime Rates: Evidence From Prison Overcrowding Litigation," NBER Working Papers 5119, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Andrew E. Clark & Carine Milcent, 2011. "Public Employment and Political Pressure: The Case of French Hospitals," Post-Print halshs-00654629, HAL.
  11. Philip J. Cook & Jens Ludwig, 2002. "The Effects of Gun Prevalence on Burglary: Deterrence vs Inducement," NBER Working Papers 8926, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Nilsson, Anna, 2004. "Income inequality and crime: The case of Sweden," Working Paper Series 2004:6, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
  13. Marcel Fafchamps & Bart Minten, 2004. "Insecurity and Welfare," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/2004-31, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  14. Ludwig, Jens & Kling, Jeffrey R., 2006. "Is Crime Contagious?," IZA Discussion Papers 2213, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  15. Daniel Beland & Patrik Marier, 2004. "The Politics of Protest Avoidance: Policy Windows, Labor Mobilization, and Pension Reform in France," Social and Economic Dimensions of an Aging Population Research Papers 114, McMaster University.
  16. Lucia Rizzica, 2013. "Home or away? Gender differences in the effects of an expansion of tertiary education supply," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 181, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  17. Zhao, Jihong & Ren, Ling & Lovrich, Nicholas P., 2010. "Budgetary support for police services in U.S. municipalities: Comparing political culture, socioeconomic characteristics and incrementalism as rival explanations for budget share allocation to police," Journal of Criminal Justice, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 266-275, May.
  18. Paul A. Bekker & Jan van der Ploeg, 2000. "Instrumental Variable Estimation Based on Grouped Data," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 1862, Econometric Society.
  19. H. Naci Mocan & Daniel I. Rees, 2005. "Economic Conditions, Deterrence and Juvenile Crime: Evidence from Micro Data," American Law and Economics Review, Oxford University Press, vol. 7(2), pages 319-349.
  20. Entorf, Horst & Spengler, Hannes, 2000. "Socioeconomic and demographic factors of crime in Germany: Evidence from panel data of the German states," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 75-106, March.
  21. Jeffrey D. Kubik & John R. Moran, 2001. "Lethal Elections: Gubernatorial Politics and the Timing of Executions," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 40, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
  22. Nilsson, Anna & Agell, Jonas, 2003. "Crime, unemployment and labor market programs in turbulent times," Working Paper Series 2003:14, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
  23. Gould, Eric D. & Stecklov, Guy, 2009. "Terror and the costs of crime," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(11-12), pages 1175-1188, December.
  24. Marco Castillo & Ragan Petrie & Maximo Torero & Angelino Viceisza, 2009. "Lost in the Mail: A Field Experiment on Crime," Experimental Economics Center Working Paper Series 2009-01, Experimental Economics Center, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
  25. Steinbuks, J., 2008. "Financial constraints and firms' investment: results of a natural experiment measuring firm response to power interruption," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0844, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  26. Haroon Bhorat & Ravi Kanbur & Natasha Mayet, 2012. "Estimating the Causal Effect of Enforcement on Minimum Wage Compliance: The Case of S outh A frica," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(4), pages 608-623, November.
  27. Mirko Draca & Stephen Machin & Robert Witt, 2010. "Crime Displacement and Police Interventions: Evidence from London's "Operation Theseus"," NBER Chapters, in: The Economics of Crime: Lessons for and from Latin America, pages 359-374 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  28. Lakshmi Iyer & Anandi Mani & Prachi Mishra & Petia Topalova, 2011. "The Power of Political Voice: Women's Political Representation and Crime in India," Harvard Business School Working Papers 11-092, Harvard Business School, revised Aug 2011.
  29. Suncica Vujic & Siem Jan Koopman & Jacques J. F. Commandeur, 2012. "Economic Trends and Cycles in Crime: A Study for England and Wales," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 232(6), pages 652-677, November.
  30. Ma. Guillamón & Francisco Bastida & Bernardino Benito, 2013. "The electoral budget cycle on municipal police expenditure," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 36(3), pages 447-469, December.
  31. Stephen Machin & Olivier Marie, 2005. "Crime and police resources: the street crime initiative," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 19902, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  32. Entorf, Horst & Sprengler, Hannes, 1998. "Kriminalität, ihre Ursachen und ihre Bekämpfung: Warum auch Ökonomen gefragt sind," ZEW Dokumentationen 98-01, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  33. Carolyn Kousky & Erzo Luttmer & Richard Zeckhauser, 2006. "Private investment and government protection," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 73-100, September.
  34. Hörisch, Hannah & Strassmair, Christina, 2008. "An experimental test of the deterrence hypothesis," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 229, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
  35. Buehler, Stefan & Halbheer, Daniel & Lechner, Michael, 2015. "Payment Evasion," CEPR Discussion Papers 10581, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  36. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:11:y:2004:i:2:p:1-9 is not listed on IDEAS
  37. Bedard, Kelly & Helland, Eric, 2004. "The location of women's prisons and the deterrence effect of "harder" time," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 147-167, June.
  38. Guido Travaglini, 2003. "Property Crime and Law Enforcement in Italy. A Regional Panel Analysis 1980-95," Giornale degli Economisti, GDE (Giornale degli Economisti e Annali di Economia), Bocconi University, vol. 62(2), pages 211-240, October.
  39. Richard A. Ashley & Guo Li, 2013. "Re-Examining the Impact of Housing Wealth and Stock Wealth on Household Spending: Does Persistence in Wealth Changes Matter?," Working Papers e07-39, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Economics.
  40. Levitt, Steven D, 1998. "Why Do Increased Arrest Rates Appear to Reduce Crime: Deterrence, Incapacitation, or Measurement Error?," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 36(3), pages 353-72, July.
  41. Boockmann, Bernhard & Rincke, Johannes, 2005. "Wirksamkeit der Bekämpfung der Schwarzarbeit durch die "Finanzkontrolle Schwarzarbeit": Empirische Untersuchung der Entwicklung der Schwarzarbeit und des hierauf bezogenen Bewusstseins- und ," ZEW Expertises, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research, number 111459.
  42. Soares, Rodrigo R., 2004. "Development, crime and punishment: accounting for the international differences in crime rates," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 155-184, February.
  43. Levitt Steven & Mauricio Rubio, 2000. "Understanding crime in Colombia and what can be done about It," WORKING PAPERS SERIES. DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO 003735, FEDESARROLLO.
  44. Benjamin Hansen, 2015. "Punishment and Deterrence: Evidence from Drunk Driving," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 105(4), pages 1581-1617, April.
  45. Sieger, Philip, 2013. "Job Losses and Criminal Gains: Analyzing the Effect of Unemployment on Criminal Activity," Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 79929, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
  46. John M. Nunley & Richard Alan Seals & Joachim Zietz, 2010. "Demographic Change, Macroeconomic Conditions, and the Murder Rate: The Case of the United States, 1934 to 2006," Auburn Economics Working Paper Series auwp2010-04, Department of Economics, Auburn University.
  47. Edward L. Glaeser, 2012. "Urban Public Finance," NBER Working Papers 18244, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  48. Kelaher, Richard & Sarafidis, Vasilis, 2011. "Crime and Punishment Revisited," MPRA Paper 28213, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  49. Wheaton, William C., 2006. "Metropolitan fragmentation, law enforcement effort and urban crime," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 1-14, July.
  50. Joshua Angrist, 2005. "Instrumental Variables Methods in Experimental Criminological Research: What, Why, and How?," NBER Technical Working Papers 0314, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  51. Bruno S. Frey, 2009. "Punishment - and beyond," CESifo Working Paper Series 2706, CESifo Group Munich.
  52. Roberto Coronado & Pia M. Orrenius, 2003. "The impact of illegal immigration and enforcement on border crime rates," Working Papers 0303, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
  53. Steven D. Levitt, 2004. "Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors that Explain the Decline and Six that Do Not," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(1), pages 163-190, Winter.
  54. Gaviria, Alejandro, 2000. "Increasing returns and the evolution of violent crime: the case of Colombia," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 1-25, February.
  55. Aoki, Yu, 2014. "More Schooling, Less Youth Crime? Learning from an Earthquake in Japan," IZA Discussion Papers 8619, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  56. Jörg L. Spenkuch, 2014. "Understanding the Impact of Immigration on Crime," American Law and Economics Review, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(1), pages 177-219.
  57. Glass, Anthony, 2009. "Government expenditure on public order and safety, economic growth and private investment: Empirical evidence from the United States," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 29-37, March.
  58. Lance Lochner, 2003. "Individual Perceptions of the Criminal Justice System," NBER Working Papers 9474, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  59. Aaron Chalfin & Justin McCrary, 2013. "The Effect of Police on Crime: New Evidence from U.S. Cities, 1960-2010," NBER Working Papers 18815, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  60. Maurice J.G. Bun, 2014. "Identifying the impact of deterrence on crime - internal versus external instruments," UvA-Econometrics Working Papers 14-03, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Dept. of Econometrics.
  61. Desimone, Jeff, 2001. "The Effect of Cocaine Prices on Crime," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 39(4), pages 627-43, October.
  62. C. Fritz Foley, 2008. "Welfare Payments and Crime," NBER Working Papers 14074, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  63. Edward L. Glaeser & Bruce Sacerdote, 2000. "The Determinants of Punishment: Deterrence, Incapacitation and Vengeance," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1894, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  64. Entorf, Horst & Winker, Peter, 2006. "Investigating the Drugs-Crime Channel in Economics of Crime Models Empirical Evidence from Panel Data of the German States," Darmstadt Discussion Papers in Economics 36776, Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute of Economics (VWL).
  65. Dawid, H. & Feichtinger, G. & Novak, A., 2002. "Extortion as an obstacle to economic growth: a dynamic game analysis," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 499-516, September.
  66. Almeida, Rita & Carneiro, Pedro, 2008. "Enforcement of labor regulation and firm size," Social Protection Discussion Papers 43675, The World Bank.
  67. Michael P. Murray, 2006. "Avoiding Invalid Instruments and Coping with Weak Instruments," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 20(4), pages 111-132, Fall.
  68. Sean Muller, 2012. "Econometric methods and Reichenbach's principle," SALDRU Working Papers 85, Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town.
  69. Kevin Denny & Colm Harmon & Reamonn Lydon, 2004. "An Econometric Analysis of Burglary in Ireland," Working Papers 200416, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
  70. Nunley, John M. & Seals, Richard Alan & Zietz, Joachim, 2011. "Demographic change, macroeconomic conditions, and the murder rate: The case of the United States, 1934–2006," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 942-948.
  71. Paresh Kumar Narayan & Ingrid Nielsen & Russell Smyth, 2010. "Is There a Natural Rate of Crime?," American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 69(2), pages 759-782, 04.
  72. Mark Duggan, 2000. "More Guns, More Crime," NBER Working Papers 7967, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  73. Ben Vollaard, 2005. "Police numbers up, crime rates down. The effect of police on crime in the Netherlands, 1996-2003," Law and Economics 0501006, EconWPA.
  74. Horst Entorf & Hannes Spengler, 2005. "Ökonometrie der Kriminalität," Ifo Schnelldienst, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 58(16), pages 13-25, 08.
  75. C. Reynolds, 2014. "State politics, tuition, and the dynamics of a political budget cycle," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 46(4), pages 1241-1270, June.
  76. Denis Fougère & Francis Kramarz & Julien Pouget, 2009. "Youth Unemployment and Crime in France," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 7(5), pages 909-938, 09.
  77. Isaac Ehrlich, 1996. "Crime, Punishment, and the Market for Offenses," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 10(1), pages 43-67, Winter.
  78. Parikshit Ghosh, 2009. "Making the Punishment Fit the Crime or Taliban Justice? Optimal Penalties Without Commitment," Working papers 175, Centre for Development Economics, Delhi School of Economics.
  79. Heckman, James J. & Masterov, Dimitriy V., 2007. "The Productivity Argument for Investing in Young Children," IZA Discussion Papers 2725, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  80. Raphael, Steven & Winter-Ember, Rudolf, 2001. "Identifying the Effect of Unemployment on Crime," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 44(1), pages 259-83, April.
  81. Andrew Haughwout & Robert Inman & Steven G. Craig & Thomas Luce, 2000. "Local Revenue Hills: Evidence from Four U. S. Cities," PIER Working Paper Archive 03-012, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, revised 01 Mar 2003.
  82. H. Naci Mocan & R. Kaj Gittings, 2001. "Pardons, Executions and Homicide," NBER Working Papers 8639, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  83. Bryan Engelhardt, 2008. "The Effect of Employment Frictions on Crime: Theory and Estimation," Working Papers 0805, College of the Holy Cross, Department of Economics.
  84. Bjorn Frank & Guenther G. Schulze, 2000. "Deterrence versus Intrinsic Motivation: Experimental Evidence on the Determinants of Corruptibility," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 0950, Econometric Society.
  85. Spyros Skouras & Nicos Christodoulakis, 2014. "Electoral misgovernance cycles: evidence from wildfires and tax evasion in Greece," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 159(3), pages 533-559, June.
  86. Ben Vollaard & Pierre Koning, 2005. "Estimating police effectiveness with individual victimisation data," CPB Discussion Paper 47, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
  87. Horst Entorf & Peter Winker, 2001. "The Economics of Crime: Investigating the Drugs-Crime Channel," Law and Economics 0108001, EconWPA.
  88. Entorf, Horst, 2011. "Crime, Prosecutors, and the Certainty of Conviction," IZA Discussion Papers 5670, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  89. Jeffrey D. Kubik & John R. Moran, 2001. "Can Policy Changes Be Treated as Natural Experiments? Evidence from State Excise Taxes," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 39, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
  90. Gathmann, Christina, 2004. "The Effects of Enforcement on Illegal Markets: Evidence from Migrant Smuggling along the Southwestern Border," IZA Discussion Papers 1004, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  91. Spengler, Hannes, 2005. "Eine panelökonometrische Überprüfung der ökonomischen Theorie der Kriminalität mit deutschen Bundesländerdaten," Darmstadt Discussion Papers in Economics 36801, Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute of Economics (VWL).
  92. Lopez Uribe, Maria del Pilar, 2013. "Roads or Schools? Political Budget Cycles with different types of voters," MPRA Paper 50529, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  93. Klick, Jonathan & Tabarrok, Alexander, 2005. "Using Terror Alert Levels to Estimate the Effect of Police on Crime," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 48(1), pages 267-79, April.
  94. Entorf, Horst, 2007. "Evaluation des Maßregelvollzugs: Grundzüge einer Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse," Darmstadt Discussion Papers in Economics 35718, Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute of Economics (VWL).
  95. Ochsen, Carsten, 2005. "Crime and European labour market policy," Thuenen-Series of Applied Economic Theory 55, University of Rostock, Institute of Economics.
  96. Spyros Skouras & Nicos Christodoulakis, 2011. "Electoral Misgovernance Cycles: Evidence from wildfires and tax evasion in Greece and elsewhere," GreeSE – Hellenic Observatory Papers on Greece and Southeast Europe 47, Hellenic Observatory, LSE.
  97. Fajnzylber, Pablo & Lederman, Daniel & Loayza, Norman, 2002. "What causes violent crime?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(7), pages 1323-1357, July.
  98. Pedro H. Albuquerque, 2005. "Shared Legacies, Disparate Outcomes: Why American South Border Cities Turned the Tables on Crime and Their Mexican Sisters Did Not," Law and Economics 0511002, EconWPA.
  99. Entorf, Horst & Winkler, Peter, 2001. "The economics of crime: investigating the drugs-crime channel: empirical evidence from panel data of the German states," ZEW Discussion Papers 01-37, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  100. Justin McCrary, 2002. "Using Electoral Cycles in Police Hiring to Estimate the Effect of Police on Crime: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(4), pages 1236-1243, September.
  101. Kausik Chaudhuri & Payel Chowdhury & Kevin Reilly, 2013. "A New Perspective on Violent Crime Burden Index: Evidence from Indian Districts," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 110(2), pages 771-789, January.
  102. Reyes, Luis Carlos, 2014. "Estimating the Causal Effect of Forced Eradication on Coca Cultivation in Colombian Municipalities," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 70-84.
  103. repec:hal:wpaper:halshs-00586792 is not listed on IDEAS
  104. Siem Jan Koopman & Andr� Lucas & Marius Ooms & Kees van Montfort & Victor van der Geest, 2007. "Estimating Systematic Continuous-time Trends in Recidivism using a Non-Gaussian Panel Data Model," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 07-027/4, Tinbergen Institute.
  105. Guha, Brishti, 2013. "Guns and crime revisited," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 1-10.
  106. John J. Donohue III & Steven D. Levitt, 1998. "The Impact of Race on Policing, Arrest Patterns, and Crime," NBER Working Papers 6784, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  107. Bushway, Shawn & DeAngelo, Gregory & Hansen, Benjamin, 2013. "Deterability by age," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 70-81.
  108. Heaton, Paul & Hunt, Priscillia E & MacDonald, John & Saunders, Jessica, 2015. "The Short- and Long-Run Effects of Private Law Enforcement: Evidence from University Police," IZA Discussion Papers 8800, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  109. Guha, Brishti & Guha, Ashok S., 2012. "Crime and moral hazard: Does more policing necessarily induce private negligence?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 115(3), pages 455-459.
  110. Edlund, Lena & Li, Hongbin & Yi, Junjian & Zhang, Junsen, 2007. "Sex Ratios and Crime: Evidence from China’s One-Child Policy," IZA Discussion Papers 3214, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  111. DeAngelo, Gregory, 2012. "Making space for crime: A spatial analysis of criminal competition," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1-2), pages 42-51.
  112. Ammermüller, Andreas, 2007. "Violence in European schools: victimization and consequences," ZEW Discussion Papers 07-004, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  113. Joshua Angrist & Alan B. Krueger, 2001. "Instrumental Variables and the Search for Identification: From Supply and Demand to Natural Experiments," NBER Working Papers 8456, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  114. Soares, Rodrigo R. & Viveiros, Igor, 2010. "Organization and Information in the Fight against Crime: An Evaluation of the Integration of Police Forces in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil," IZA Discussion Papers 5270, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  115. Spengler, Hannes & Büttner, Thiess, 2003. "Local Determinants of Crime: Distinguishing Between Resident and Non-resident Offenders," ZEW Discussion Papers 03-13, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  116. Suncica Vujic & Jacques Commandeur & Siem Jan Koopman, 2012. "Structural Intervention Time Series Analysis of Crime Rates: The Impact of Sentence Reform in Virginia," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 12-007/4, Tinbergen Institute.
  117. Dean Yang, 2004. "Can Enforcement Backfire? Crime Displacement in the Context of Customs Reform in the Philippines," Working Papers 520, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
  118. Donald W.K. Andrews & Vadim Marmer, 2005. "Exactly Distribution-free Inference in Instrumental Variables Regression with Possibly Weak Instruments," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1501, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  119. Andrew E. Clark & Carine Milcent, 2008. "Keynesian hospitals? Public employment and political pressure," PSE Working Papers halshs-00586792, HAL.
  120. Margarita Katsimi & Vassilis Sarantides, 2012. "Do elections affect the composition of fiscal policy in developed, established democracies?," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 151(1), pages 325-362, April.
  121. Islam, Asif, 2011. "Police and Crime Against Firms in Developing Economies," MPRA Paper 36725, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  122. Lauridsen, Jørgen T. & Zeren, Fatma & Ari, Ayse, 2014. "Is crime in Turkey economically rational?," Discussion Papers of Business and Economics 3/2014, Department of Business and Economics, University of Southern Denmark.
  123. Horst Entorf & Hannes Spengler, 2008. "Is Being 'Soft on Crime' the Solution to Rising Crime Rates?: Evidence from Germany," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 837, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  124. Lin, Ming-Jen, 2009. "More police, less crime: Evidence from US state data," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 73-80, June.
  125. Entorf, Horst, 2012. "Certainty and Severity of Sanctions in Classical and Behavioral Models of Deterrence: A Survey," IZA Discussion Papers 6516, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  126. Evans, William N. & Owens, Emily G., 2007. "COPS and crime," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(1-2), pages 181-201, February.
  127. Draca, Mirko & Machin, Stephen & Witt, Robert, 2008. "Panic on the Streets of London: Police, Crime and the July 2005 Terror Attacks," IZA Discussion Papers 3410, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  128. Brooks, Leah, 2008. "Volunteering to be taxed: Business improvement districts and the extra-governmental provision of public safety," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(1-2), pages 388-406, February.
  129. Javier Núñez & Jorge Rivera & Xavier Villavicencio & Oscar Molina, 2003. "Determinantes socioeconómicos y demográficos del crimen en Chile," Estudios de Economia, University of Chile, Department of Economics, vol. 30(1 Year 20), pages 55-85, June.
  130. Sarnikar, Supriya & Sorensen, Todd A. & Oaxaca, Ronald L., 2007. "Do You Receive a Lighter Prison Sentence Because You Are a Woman? An Economic Analysis of Federal Criminal Sentencing Guidelines," IZA Discussion Papers 2870, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  131. Alejandro Gaviria & Carlos Medina & Jorge Andres Tamayo, . "Assessing the Link between Adolescent Fertility and Urban Crime," Borradores de Economia 594, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  132. Marceau, Nicolas & Mongrain, Steeve, 1999. "Dissuader le crime : un survol," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 75(1), pages 123-147, mars-juin.
  133. Clemens, Michael A., 2015. "The Meaning of Failed Replications: A Review and Proposal," IZA Discussion Papers 9000, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  134. Michael Waldman & Sean Nicholson & Nodir Adilov, 2006. "Does Television Cause Autism?," NBER Working Papers 12632, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  135. Lin, Ming-Jen, 2007. "Does democracy increase crime? The evidence from international data," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 467-483, September.
  136. Meloni, Osvaldo, 2012. "Is there an electoral-motivated crime rate cycle? Evidence from Argentina," MPRA Paper 40177, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  137. Alves, Luiz G.A. & Ribeiro, Haroldo V. & Mendes, Renio S., 2013. "Scaling laws in the dynamics of crime growth rate," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 392(11), pages 2672-2679.
  138. Vollaard, Ben & Koning, Pierre, 2009. "The effect of police on crime, disorder and victim precaution. Evidence from a Dutch victimization survey," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 336-348, December.
  139. Almeida, Rita & Carneiro, Pedro, 2005. "Enforcement of labor regulation, informal labor, and firm performance," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3756, The World Bank.
  140. Ian Ayres & Steven D. Levitt, 1997. "Measuring Positive Externalities from Unobservable Victim Precaution: An Empirical Analysis of Lojack," NBER Working Papers 5928, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  141. Siddhartha Bandyopadhyay & Samrat Bhattacharya & Rudra Sensarma, 2011. "An Analysis of the Factors Determining Crime in England and Wales: A Quantile Regression Approach," Discussion Papers 11-12, Department of Economics, University of Birmingham.
  142. Laurens Cherchye & Bruno De Borger & Tom Van Puyenbroeck, 2004. "Nonparametric tests of optimizing behavior in public service provision: Methodology and an application to local safety," Public Economics Working Paper Series ces0416, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centrum voor Economische Studiën, Working Group Public Economics.
  143. Andrew Dyke, 2007. "Electoral cycles in the administration of criminal justice," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 133(3), pages 417-437, December.
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