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Citations for "Using Electoral Cycles in Police Hiring to Estimate the Effect of Policeon Crime"

by Steven D. Levitt

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  1. Mani, Anandi & Iyer, Lakshmi & Mishra, Prachi & Topalova, Petia, 2011. "The Power of Political Voice: Women's Political Representation and Crime in India," CAGE Online Working Paper Series 63, Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy (CAGE).
  2. Cohen, Mark A. & Miller, Ted R., 2003. ""Willingness to award" nonmonetary damages and the implied value of life from jury awards," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 165-181, June.
  3. CHERCHYE, Laurens & DE BORGER, Bruno & VAN PUYENBROECK, Tom, 2005. "Nonparametric tests of optimizing behavior in public service provision: Methodology and an application to local safety," Working Papers 2005002, University of Antwerp, Faculty of Applied Economics.
  4. Jens Ludwig & Jeffrey R. Kling, 2007. "Is Crime Contagious?," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 50, pages 491-518.
  5. Alejandro Gaviria & Carlos Medina & Jorge Andres Tamayo, . "Assessing the Link between Adolescent Fertility and Urban Crime," Borradores de Economia 594, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  6. Gould, Eric D. & Stecklov, Guy, 2009. "Terror and the costs of crime," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(11-12), pages 1175-1188, December.
  7. C. Fritz Foley, 2008. "Welfare Payments and Crime," NBER Working Papers 14074, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:11:y:2004:i:2:p:1-9 is not listed on IDEAS
  9. Michael Waldman & Sean Nicholson & Nodir Adilov, 2006. "Does Television Cause Autism?," NBER Working Papers 12632, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Anna Piil Damm & Christian Dustmann, 2013. "Does Growing Up in a High Crime Neighborhood Affect Youth Criminal Behavior?," Norface Discussion Paper Series 2013025, Norface Research Programme on Migration, Department of Economics, University College London.
  11. Stephen Machin & Olivier Marie, 2005. "Crime and police resources: the street crime initiative," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 19902, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  12. Hannes Spengler, 2006. "Eine panelökonometrische Überprüfung der ökonomischen Theorie der Kriminalität mit deutschen Bundesländerdaten," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 548, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  13. Mirko Draca & Stephen Machin & Robert Witt, 2011. "Panic on the Streets of London: Police, Crime, and the July 2005 Terror Attacks," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(5), pages 2157-81, August.
  14. Garett Jones & Ali Kutan, 2004. "Volatile Interest Rates, Volatile Crime Rates: A new argument for interest-rate smoothing," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 2004-694, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  15. Baicker, Katherine & Jacobson, Mireille, 2007. "Finders keepers: Forfeiture laws, policing incentives, and local budgets," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(11-12), pages 2113-2136, December.
  16. DeAngelo, Gregory, 2012. "Making space for crime: A spatial analysis of criminal competition," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1-2), pages 42-51.
  17. Joshua Angrist, 2005. "Instrumental Variables Methods in Experimental Criminological Research: What, Why, and How?," NBER Technical Working Papers 0314, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Lin, Ming-Jen, 2007. "Does democracy increase crime? The evidence from international data," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 467-483, September.
  19. Nunley, John M. & Seals, Richard Alan & Zietz, Joachim, 2011. "Demographic change, macroeconomic conditions, and the murder rate: The case of the United States, 1934–2006," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 942-948.
  20. Ian Ayres & Steven D. Levitt, 1997. "Measuring Positive Externalities from Unobservable Victim Precaution: An Empirical Analysis of Lojack," NBER Working Papers 5928, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  21. Edward L. Glaeser & Bruce Sacerdote, 2000. "The Determinants of Punishment: Deterrence, Incapacitation and Vengeance," NBER Working Papers 7676, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  22. Steven N. Durlauf & Daniel S. Nagin, 2010. "The Deterrent Effect of Imprisonment," NBER Chapters, in: Controlling Crime: Strategies and Tradeoffs, pages 43-94 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  23. Bruno S. Frey, 2009. "Punishment – and beyond," IEW - Working Papers 418, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
  24. Alves, Luiz G.A. & Ribeiro, Haroldo V. & Mendes, Renio S., 2013. "Scaling laws in the dynamics of crime growth rate," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 392(11), pages 2672-2679.
  25. Joseph J. Doyle, Jr., 2007. "Child Protection and Adult Crime: Using Investigator Assignment to Estimate Causal Effects of Foster Care," NBER Working Papers 13291, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  26. Panu Poutvaara & Mikael Priks, 2006. "Hooliganism in the Shadow of the 9/11 Terrorist Attack and the Tsunami: Do Police Reduce Group Violence?," CESifo Working Paper Series 1882, CESifo Group Munich.
  27. MacCulloch, Robert, 1999. "What makes a revolution?," ZEI Working Papers B 24-1999, University of Bonn, ZEI - Center for European Integration Studies.
  28. Pedro Albuquerque, 2007. "Shared Legacies, Disparate Outcomes: Why American South Border Cities Turned the Tables on Crime and Their Mexican Sisters Did Not," Post-Print halshs-00746143, HAL.
  29. Pettersson Lidbom, Per, 2003. "A Test of the Rational Electoral-Cycle Hypothesis," Research Papers in Economics 2003:16, Stockholm University, Department of Economics.
  30. Steven D. Levitt, 1995. "Why Do Increased Arrest Rates Appear to Reduce Crime: Deterrence, Incapacitation, or Measurement Error?," NBER Working Papers 5268, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  31. Carolyn Kousky & Erzo Luttmer & Richard Zeckhauser, 2006. "Private investment and government protection," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 73-100, September.
  32. H. Naci Mocan & Stephen C. Billups & Jody Overland, 2005. "A Dynamic Model of Differential Human Capital and Criminal Activity," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 72(288), pages 655-681, November.
  33. Sigbjørn Birkeland & Alexander Cappelen & Erik Sørensen & Bertil Tungodden, 2014. "An experimental study of prosocial motivation among criminals," Experimental Economics, Springer, vol. 17(4), pages 501-511, December.
  34. John J. Donohue III & Steven D. Levitt, 1998. "The Impact of Race on Policing, Arrest Patterns, and Crime," NBER Working Papers 6784, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  35. Matteo Rizzolli & Margherita Saraceno, 2009. "Better that X guilty persons escape than that one innocent suffer," Working Papers 168, University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Economics, revised Jul 2009.
  36. Ajilore, Olugbenga & Smith, John, 2010. "Ethnic fragmentation and police spending," MPRA Paper 19967, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  37. Andrew Haughwout & Robert Inman & Steven G. Craig & Thomas Luce, 2000. "Local Revenue Hills: Evidence from Four U. S. Cities," PIER Working Paper Archive 03-012, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, revised 01 Mar 2003.
  38. Levitt Steven & Mauricio Rubio, 2000. "Understanding crime in Colombia and what can be done about It," WORKING PAPERS SERIES. DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO 003735, FEDESARROLLO.
  39. Entorf, Horst & Spengler, Hannes, 2008. "Is Being 'Soft on Crime' the Solution to Rising Crime Rates? Evidence from Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 3710, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  40. Patricia Funk & Christina Gathmann, 2007. "Does direct democracy reduce the size of government? New evidence from historical data, 1890-2000," Economics Working Papers 1123, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Oct 2008.
  41. Lance Lochner, 2007. "Individual Perceptions of the Criminal Justice System," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(1), pages 444-460, March.
  42. Roberto Coronado & Pia M. Orrenius, 2003. "The impact of illegal immigration and enforcement on border crime rates," Working Papers 0303, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
  43. H. Naci Mocan & Daniel I. Rees, 2005. "Economic Conditions, Deterrence and Juvenile Crime: Evidence from Micro Data," American Law and Economics Review, Oxford University Press, vol. 7(2), pages 319-349.
  44. Robert Witt & Ann Dryden Witte, 1998. "Crime, Imprisonment, and Female Labor Force Participation: A Time-Series Approach," NBER Working Papers 6786, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  45. Huber, Martin, 2012. "Statistical verification of a natural "natural experiment": Tests and sensitivity checks for the sibling sex ratio instrument," Economics Working Paper Series 1219, University of St. Gallen, School of Economics and Political Science.
  46. Ma. Guillamón & Francisco Bastida & Bernardino Benito, 2013. "The electoral budget cycle on municipal police expenditure," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 36(3), pages 447-469, December.
  47. Dean Yang, 2004. "Can Enforcement Backfire? Crime Displacement in the Context of Customs Reform in the Philippines," Working Papers 520, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
  48. Gathmann, Christina, 2004. "The Effects of Enforcement on Illegal Markets: Evidence from Migrant Smuggling along the Southwestern Border," IZA Discussion Papers 1004, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  49. Siddhartha Bandyopadhyay & Samrat Bhattacharya & Rudra Sensarma, 2015. "An analysis of the factors determining crime in England and Wales: A quantile regression approach," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 35(1), pages 665-679.
  50. Lohse, Tim & Pascalau, Razvan & Thomann, Christian, 2014. "Public enforcement of securities market rules: Resource-based evidence from the Securities and Exchange Commission," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 197-212.
  51. repec:hal:wpaper:halshs-00586792 is not listed on IDEAS
  52. Dongxu Wu & Zhongmin Wu, 2012. "Crime, inequality and unemployment in England and Wales," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(29), pages 3765-3775, October.
  53. Glass, Anthony, 2009. "Government expenditure on public order and safety, economic growth and private investment: Empirical evidence from the United States," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 29-37, March.
  54. Gaviria, Alejandro, 2000. "Increasing returns and the evolution of violent crime: the case of Colombia," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 1-25, February.
  55. Benjamin Hansen, 2014. "Punishment and Deterrence: Evidence from Drunk Driving," NBER Working Papers 20243, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  56. Meloni, Osvaldo, 2012. "Is there an electoral-motivated crime rate cycle? Evidence from Argentina," MPRA Paper 40177, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  57. Entorf, Horst & Sieger, Philip, 2014. "Does the Link between Unemployment and Crime Depend on the Crime Level? A Quantile Regression Approach," IZA Discussion Papers 8334, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  58. Rafael Di Tella & Ernesto Schargrodsky, 2004. "Do Police Reduce Crime? Estimates Using the Allocation of Police Forces After a Terrorist Attack," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(1), pages 115-133, March.
  59. Fougère, Denis & Kramarz, Francis & Pouget, Julien, 2006. "Youth Unemployment and Crime in France," IZA Discussion Papers 2009, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  60. Steven D. Levitt, 2004. "Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors that Explain the Decline and Six that Do Not," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(1), pages 163-190, Winter.
  61. Büttner, Thiess & Spengler, Hannes, 2003. "Local Determinants of Crime: Distinguishing between Resident and Non-Resident Offenders," Darmstadt Discussion Papers in Economics 37307, Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute of Economics (VWL).
  62. Traub, Stefan, 2006. "The Provision of Local Public Services in a Risky Environment: An Application to Crime," Economics Working Papers 2006,03, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Department of Economics.
  63. Che, Yi & Xu, Xun, 2015. "The China Syndrome in US: Import Competition, Crime, and Government Transfer," MPRA Paper 68135, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  64. Schulze, Günther G. & Frank, Björn, 2000. "Deterrence versus intrinsic motivation: Experimental evidence on the determinants of corruptility," Discussion Papers, Series I 303, University of Konstanz, Department of Economics.
  65. Edward L. Glaeser, 2012. "Urban Public Finance," NBER Working Papers 18244, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  66. Desimone, Jeff, 2001. "The Effect of Cocaine Prices on Crime," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 39(4), pages 627-43, October.
  67. Mejía,Daniel & Restrepo,Pascual & Rozo,Sandra V., 2015. "On the effects of enforcement on illegal markets : evidence from a quasi-experiment in Colombia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7409, The World Bank.
  68. repec:zbw:darddp:224 is not listed on IDEAS
  69. Edlund, Lena & Li, Hongbin & Yi, Junjian & Zhang, Junsen, 2007. "Sex Ratios and Crime: Evidence from China’s One-Child Policy," IZA Discussion Papers 3214, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  70. Bushway, Shawn & DeAngelo, Gregory & Hansen, Benjamin, 2013. "Deterability by age," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 70-81.
  71. Johannes Rincke & Christian Traxler, 2009. "Deterrence through Word of Mouth," CESifo Working Paper Series 2549, CESifo Group Munich.
  72. Entorf, Horst, 2011. "Crime, Prosecutors, and the Certainty of Conviction," IZA Discussion Papers 5670, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  73. Buehler, Stefan & Halbheer, Daniel & Lechner, Michael, 2015. "Payment Evasion," CEPR Discussion Papers 10581, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  74. Joshua Angrist & Alan B. Krueger, 2001. "Instrumental Variables and the Search for Identification: From Supply and Demand to Natural Experiments," NBER Working Papers 8456, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  75. Jeffrey D. Kubik & John R. Moran, 2001. "Lethal Elections: Gubernatorial Politics and the Timing of Executions," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 40, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
  76. Thomas A. Garrett & Lesli S. Ott, 2008. "City business cycles and crime," Working Papers 2008-026, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  77. Bryan Engelhardt, 2008. "The Effect of Employment Frictions on Crime: Theory and Estimation," Working Papers 0805, College of the Holy Cross, Department of Economics.
  78. Steven D. Levitt, 1997. "Juvenile Crime and Punishment," NBER Working Papers 6191, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  79. Paul J. Zak, 2000. "Larceny," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 1(2), pages 157-179, 07.
  80. Nilsson, Anna, 2004. "Income inequality and crime: The case of Sweden," Working Paper Series 2004:6, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
  81. Marcel Fafchamps & Bart Minten, 2004. "Insecurity and welfare," CSAE Working Paper Series 2004-31, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
  82. Entorf, Horst & Sprengler, Hannes, 1998. "Kriminalität, ihre Ursachen und ihre Bekämpfung: Warum auch Ökonomen gefragt sind," ZEW Dokumentationen 98-01, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  83. Syed Yasir Mahmood Gillani & Rana Ejaz Ali Khan & Abid Rashid Gill, 2011. "Unemployment and Property Crimes in Pakistan," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 1(3), pages 124-133, September.
  84. Duha Tore Altindag, . "Crime and Unemployment: Evidence from Europe," Departmental Working Papers 2009-13, Department of Economics, Louisiana State University.
  85. Daniel Beland & Patrik Marier, 2004. "The Politics of Protest Avoidance: Policy Windows, Labor Mobilization, and Pension Reform in France," Social and Economic Dimensions of an Aging Population Research Papers 114, McMaster University.
  86. Margarita Katsimi & Vassilis Sarantides, 2012. "Do elections affect the composition of fiscal policy in developed, established democracies?," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 151(1), pages 325-362, April.
  87. Sieger, Philip, 2013. "Job Losses and Criminal Gains: Analyzing the Effect of Unemployment on Criminal Activity," Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 79929, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
  88. Cerro, Ana María & Rodríguez Andrés, Antonio, 2011. "Typologies of Crime in the Argentine Provinces. A Panel Study 2000-2008," MPRA Paper 44460, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  89. Guha, Brishti, 2013. "Guns and crime revisited," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 1-10.
  90. Aslan, Alper, 2008. "Türkiye’de Suç Oranları Sürekliliğinin Analizi," MPRA Paper 10610, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  91. Halicioglu, Ferda & Andrés, Antonio R. & Yamamura, Eiji, 2012. "Modeling crime in Japan," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 1640-1645.
  92. Entorf, Horst & Meyer, Susanne, 2004. "Kosten und Nutzen des Strafvollzuges: Grundlagen im Rahmen einer rationalen Kriminalpolitik," Darmstadt Discussion Papers in Economics 129, Darmstadt University of Technology, Department of Law and Economics.
  93. Yamamura, Eiji, 2009. "Formal and informal deterrents of crime in Japan: Roles of police and social capital revisited," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 611-621, August.
  94. Adrian Stoian & Price V. Fishback, 2009. "Welfare Spending and Mortality Rates for the Elderly Before the Social Security Era," NBER Working Papers 14970, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  95. D'Este, Rocco, 2014. "The Effect of Stolen Goods Markets on Crime: Evidence from a Quasi - Natural Experiment," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 1040, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  96. Isabel-María García-Sánchez & Luis Rodríguez-Domínguez & Javier Parra-Domínguez, 2013. "Yearly evolution of police efficiency in Spain and explanatory factors," Central European Journal of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 21(1), pages 31-62, January.
  97. Reyes, Luis Carlos, 2011. "Estimating the causal effect of forced eradication on coca cultivation in Colombian municipalities," MPRA Paper 33478, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  98. Poutvaara, Panu & Priks, Mikael, 2009. "The effect of police intelligence on group violence: Evidence from reassignments in Sweden," Munich Reprints in Economics 19791, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  99. Alexandre Mas, 2006. "Pay, Reference Points, and Police Performance," NBER Working Papers 12202, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  100. Hannah Schildberg-Hörisch & Christina Strassmair, 2012. "An Experimental Test of the Deterrence Hypothesis," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 28(3), pages 447-459, August.
  101. Entorf, Horst & Winker, Peter, 2005. "Investigating the drugs-crime channel in economics of crime models empirical evidence from panel data of the German states," Darmstadt Discussion Papers in Economics 165, Darmstadt University of Technology, Department of Law and Economics.
  102. Glenn B. Canner & Elizabeth Laderman & Andreas Lehnert & Wayne Passmore, 2002. "Does the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) cause banks to provide a subsidy to some mortgage borrowers?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2002-19, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  103. Steven D. Levitt, 1995. "The Effect of Prison Population Size on Crime Rates: Evidence From Prison Overcrowding Litigation," NBER Working Papers 5119, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  104. Boockmann, Bernhard & Rincke, Johannes, 2005. "Wirksamkeit der Bekämpfung der Schwarzarbeit durch die "Finanzkontrolle Schwarzarbeit": Empirische Untersuchung der Entwicklung der Schwarzarbeit und des hierauf bezogenen Bewusstseins- und ," ZEW Expertises, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research, number 111459.
  105. Horst Entorf & Peter Winker, 2001. "The Economics of Crime: Investigating the Drugs-Crime Channel," Law and Economics 0108001, EconWPA.
  106. Haroon Bhorat & Ravi Kanbur & Natasha Mayet, 2011. "Estimating the Causal Effect of Enforcement on Minimum Wage Compliance : The Case of South Africa," Working Papers 11145, University of Cape Town, Development Policy Research Unit.
  107. Raphael, Steven & WINTER-EBMER, RUDOLF, 1998. "Identifying the Effect of Unemployment on Crime," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series qt5hb4h56g, Department of Economics, UC San Diego.
  108. Makowsky, Michael & Thomas, Stratmann, 2008. "More Tickets, Fewer Accidents: How Cash-Strapped Towns Make for Safer Roads," MPRA Paper 14360, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  109. Lin, Ming-Jen, 2009. "More police, less crime: Evidence from US state data," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 73-80, June.
  110. Shoesmith, Gary L., 2013. "Space–time autoregressive models and forecasting national, regional and state crime rates," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 191-201.
  111. Daniel Montolio & Albert Solé-Ollé, 2009. "Road investment and regional productivity growth: the effects of vehicle intensity and congestion," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 88(1), pages 99-118, 03.
  112. Michael P. Murray, 2006. "Avoiding Invalid Instruments and Coping with Weak Instruments," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 20(4), pages 111-132, Fall.
  113. Jonathan Klick & Alexander Tabarrok, . "Using Terror Alert Levels to Estimate the Effect of Police on Crime," American Law & Economics Association Annual Meetings 1042, American Law & Economics Association.
  114. Clark, Andrew E. & Milcent, Carine, 2010. "Public Employment and Political Pressure: The Case of French Hospitals," IZA Discussion Papers 4994, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  115. Parikshit Ghosh, 2009. "Making the Punishment Fit the Crime or Taliban Justice? Optimal Penalties without Commitment," Working Papers id:2014, eSocialSciences.
  116. Siem Jan Koopman & Marius Ooms & André Lucas & Kees van Montfort & Victor van der Geest, 2008. "Estimating systematic continuous-time trends in recidivism using a non-Gaussian panel data model," Statistica Neerlandica, Netherlands Society for Statistics and Operations Research, vol. 62(1), pages 104-130.
  117. Almeida, Rita & Carneiro, Pedro, 2008. "Enforcement of labor regulation and firm size," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 43675, The World Bank.
  118. Kevin Denny & Colm Harmon & Reamonn Lydon, 2004. "An econometric analysis of burglary in Ireland," Working Papers 200416, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
  119. Rodrigo Reis Soares & Igor Viveiros, 2010. "Organization and Information in the Fight against Crime: An Evaluation of the Integration of Police Forces in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil," Textos para discussão 582, Department of Economics PUC-Rio (Brazil).
  120. Ryan S. Johnson & Shawn Kantor & Price V. Fishback, 2007. "Striking at the Roots of Crime: The Impact of Social Welfare Spending on Crime During the Great Depression," NBER Working Papers 12825, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  121. Clemens, Michael A., 2015. "The Meaning of Failed Replications: A Review and Proposal," IZA Discussion Papers 9000, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  122. Donald W.K. Andrews & Vadim Marmer, 2005. "Exactly Distribution-free Inference in Instrumental Variables Regression with Possibly Weak Instruments," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1501, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  123. Ann Dryden Witte & Robert Witt, 2001. "What We Spend and What We Get: Public and Private Provision of Crime Prevention," NBER Working Papers 8204, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  124. Katherine Baicker & Mireille Jacobson, 2004. "Finders Keepers: Forfeiture Laws, Policing Incentives, and Local Budgets," NBER Working Papers 10484, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  125. repec:zbw:darddp:36801 is not listed on IDEAS
  126. Heckman, James J. & Masterov, Dimitriy V., 2007. "The Productivity Argument for Investing in Young Children," IZA Discussion Papers 2725, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  127. Mirko Draca & Stephen Machin & Robert Witt, 2010. "Crime Displacement and Police Interventions: Evidence from London's "Operation Theseus"," NBER Chapters, in: The Economics of Crime: Lessons for and from Latin America, pages 359-374 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  128. Jörg L. Spenkuch, 2014. "Understanding the Impact of Immigration on Crime," American Law and Economics Review, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(1), pages 177-219.
  129. Andrew Dyke, 2007. "Electoral cycles in the administration of criminal justice," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 133(3), pages 417-437, December.
  130. Guido Travaglini, 2005. "Property Crime and Law Enforcement in Italy. A Regional Panel Analysis 1980-95," Econometrics 0512001, EconWPA.
  131. Zhao, Jihong & Ren, Ling & Lovrich, Nicholas P., 2010. "Budgetary support for police services in U.S. municipalities: Comparing political culture, socioeconomic characteristics and incrementalism as rival explanations for budget share allocation to police," Journal of Criminal Justice, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 266-275, May.
  132. Nicola Persico, 2002. "Racial Profiling, Fairness, and Effectiveness of Policing," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(5), pages 1472-1497, December.
  133. Suncica Vujic & Siem Jan Koopman & Jacques J. F. Commandeur, 2012. "Economic Trends and Cycles in Crime: A Study for England and Wales," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 232(6), pages 652-677, November.
  134. Steinbuks, J., 2008. "Financial constraints and firms' investment: results of a natural experiment measuring firm response to power interruption," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0844, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  135. Paresh Kumar Narayan & Ingrid Nielsen & Russell Smyth, 2005. "Is there a Natural Rate of Crime?," Monash Economics Working Papers 18/05, Monash University, Department of Economics.
  136. C. Reynolds, 2014. "State politics, tuition, and the dynamics of a political budget cycle," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 46(4), pages 1241-1270, June.
  137. Entorf, Horst, 2007. "Evaluation des Maßregelvollzugs: Grundzüge einer Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse," Darmstadt Discussion Papers in Economics 35718, Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute of Economics (VWL).
  138. repec:zbw:darddp:37307 is not listed on IDEAS
  139. Richard A. Ashley & Guo Li, 2013. "Re-Examining the Impact of Housing Wealth and Stock Wealth on Household Spending: Does Persistence in Wealth Changes Matter?," Working Papers e07-39, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Economics.
  140. Shawn A. Cole, 2008. "Fixing Market Failures or Fixing Elections? Agricultural Credit in India," Harvard Business School Working Papers 09-001, Harvard Business School.
  141. Rodrigo R. Soares & Joana Naritomi, 2010. "Understanding High Crime Rates in Latin America: The Role of Social and Policy Factors," NBER Chapters, in: The Economics of Crime: Lessons for and from Latin America, pages 19-55 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  142. Heaton, Paul & Hunt, Priscillia E & MacDonald, John & Saunders, Jessica, 2015. "The Short- and Long-Run Effects of Private Law Enforcement: Evidence from University Police," IZA Discussion Papers 8800, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  143. Kelaher, Richard & Sarafidis, Vasilis, 2011. "Crime and Punishment Revisited," MPRA Paper 28213, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  144. Margarita Katsimi & Vassilis Sarantides, 2010. "Do Elections Affect the Composition of Fiscal Policy?," CESifo Working Paper Series 2908, CESifo Group Munich.
  145. Niklas Potrafke, 2006. "Political Effects on the Allocation of Public Expenditures: Empirical Evidence from OECD Countries," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 653, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  146. Suncica Vujic & Jacques Commandeur & Siem Jan Koopman, 2012. "Structural Intervention Time Series Analysis of Crime Rates: The Impact of Sentence Reform in Virginia," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 12-007/4, Tinbergen Institute.
  147. Shi, Lan, 2009. "The limit of oversight in policing: Evidence from the 2001 Cincinnati riot," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(1-2), pages 99-113, February.
  148. Justin McCrary, 2002. "Using Electoral Cycles in Police Hiring to Estimate the Effect of Police on Crime: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(4), pages 1236-1243, September.
  149. Kollias, Christos & Mylonidis, Nikolaos & Paleologou, Suzanna-Maria, 2013. "Crime and the effectiveness of public order spending in Greece: Policy implications of some persistent findings," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 121-133.
  150. Jason Chan & Anindya Ghose & Robert Seamans, 2013. "The Internet and Hate Crime: Offline Spillovers from Online Access," Working Papers 13-02, NET Institute.
  151. Marco Castillo & Ragan Petrie & Maximo Torero & Angelino Viceisza, 2014. "Lost In The Mail: A Field Experiment On Crime," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 52(1), pages 285-303, 01.
  152. Ben Vollaard, 2005. "Police numbers up, crime rates down. The effect of police on crime in the Netherlands, 1996-2003," Law and Economics 0501006, EconWPA.
  153. C. Bee & Shawn Moulton, 2015. "Political budget cycles in U.S. municipalities," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 379-403, November.
  154. Spyros Skouras & Nicos Christodoulakis, 2011. "Electoral Misgovernance Cycles: Evidence from wildfires and tax evasion in Greece and elsewhere," GreeSE – Hellenic Observatory Papers on Greece and Southeast Europe 47, Hellenic Observatory, LSE.
  155. Jeffrey D. Kubik & John R. Moran, 2001. "Can Policy Changes Be Treated as Natural Experiments? Evidence from State Excise Taxes," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 39, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
  156. Evans, William N. & Owens, Emily G., 2007. "COPS and crime," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(1-2), pages 181-201, February.
  157. Nilsson, Anna & Agell, Jonas, 2003. "Crime, unemployment and labor market programs in turbulent times," Working Paper Series 2003:14, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
  158. Ben Vollaard & Pierre Koning, 2005. "Estimating police effectiveness with individual victimisation data," CPB Discussion Paper 47, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
  159. Aaron Chalfin & Justin McCrary, 2013. "The Effect of Police on Crime: New Evidence from U.S. Cities, 1960-2010," NBER Working Papers 18815, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  160. Mark Duggan, 2000. "More Guns, More Crime," NBER Working Papers 7967, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  161. Wheaton, William C., 2006. "Metropolitan fragmentation, law enforcement effort and urban crime," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 1-14, July.
  162. Ammermüller, Andreas, 2007. "Violence in European schools: victimization and consequences," ZEW Discussion Papers 07-004, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  163. Spengler, Hannes, 2005. "Eine panelökonometrische Überprüfung der ökonomischen Theorie der Kriminalität mit deutschen Bundesländerdaten," Darmstadt Discussion Papers in Economics 150, Darmstadt University of Technology, Department of Law and Economics.
  164. Ana María Cerro & Osvaldo Meloni, 2005. "Determinants of the Crime Rate in Argentina during the 90's," Law and Economics 0504001, EconWPA.
  165. Bruce Weinberg & Eric Gould & David Mustard, 1998. "Crime Rates and Local Labor Market Opportunities in the United States: 1979-1995," Working Papers 98-11, Ohio State University, Department of Economics.
  166. Dawid, H. & Feichtinger, G. & Novak, A., 2002. "Extortion as an obstacle to economic growth: a dynamic game analysis," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 499-516, September.
  167. Spyros Skouras & Nicos Christodoulakis, 2014. "Electoral misgovernance cycles: evidence from wildfires and tax evasion in Greece," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 159(3), pages 533-559, June.
  168. Kausik Chaudhuri & Payel Chowdhury & Kevin Reilly, 2013. "A New Perspective on Violent Crime Burden Index: Evidence from Indian Districts," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 110(2), pages 771-789, January.
  169. Ochsen, Carsten, 2005. "Crime and European labour market policy," Thuenen-Series of Applied Economic Theory 55, University of Rostock, Institute of Economics.
  170. Entorf, Horst & Winkler, Peter, 2001. "The economics of crime: investigating the drugs-crime channel: empirical evidence from panel data of the German states," ZEW Discussion Papers 01-37, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  171. Nilsson, Anna, 2004. "Income Inequality and Crime: The Case of Sweden," Research Papers in Economics 2004:3, Stockholm University, Department of Economics.
  172. Emiliano Tealde, 2015. "Do Police Displace Crime? The Effect of the Favela Pacification Program in Rio de Janeiro," Department of Economics University of Siena 717, Department of Economics, University of Siena.
  173. Entorf, Horst & Spengler, Hannes, 2000. "Socioeconomic and demographic factors of crime in Germany: Evidence from panel data of the German states," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 75-106, March.
  174. Lucia Rizzica, 2013. "Home or away? Gender differences in the effects of an expansion of tertiary education supply," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 181, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  175. Islam, Asif, 2011. "Police and Crime Against Firms in Developing Economies," MPRA Paper 36725, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  176. Sarnikar, Supriya & Sorensen, Todd A. & Oaxaca, Ronald L., 2007. "Do You Receive a Lighter Prison Sentence Because You Are a Woman? An Economic Analysis of Federal Criminal Sentencing Guidelines," IZA Discussion Papers 2870, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  177. Khemani, Stuti, 2004. "Political cycles in a developing economy: effect of elections in the Indian States," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 125-154, February.
  178. Hefei Wen & Jason M. Hockenberry & Janet R. Cummings, 2014. "The Effect of Substance Use Disorder Treatment Use on Crime: Evidence from Public Insurance Expansions and Health Insurance Parity Mandates," NBER Working Papers 20537, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  179. Kelly Bedard & Eric Helland, . "The Location of Women's Prisons and the Deterrence Effect of 'Harder' Time," Claremont Colleges Working Papers 2000-06, Claremont Colleges.
  180. Catalina Gómez & Hermilson Velásquez & Andrés Julián Rendón & Santiago Bohórquez, 2014. "Crime in Colombia: More law enforcement or more justice?," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO CIEF 011998, UNIVERSIDAD EAFIT.
  181. Lauridsen, Jørgen T. & Zeren, Fatma & Ari, Ay?E, 2015. "Is Crime in Turkey Economically Rational?/¿Es económicamente racional el crimen en Turquía?," Estudios de Economía Aplicada, Estudios de Economía Aplicada, vol. 33, pages 37-52, Enero.
  182. Ammermueller, Andreas, 2012. "Violence in European schools: A widespread phenomenon that matters for educational production," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 908-922.
  183. Christian Almer & Timo Goeschl, 2011. "The political economy of the environmental criminal justice system: a production function approach," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 148(3), pages 611-630, September.
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  185. Fajnzylber, Pablo & Lederman, Daniel & Loayza, Norman, 2002. "What causes violent crime?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(7), pages 1323-1357, July.
  186. Andrew E. Clark & Carine Milcent, 2008. "Keynesian hospitals? Public employment and political pressure," PSE Working Papers halshs-00586792, HAL.
  187. Almeida, Rita & Carneiro, Pedro, 2005. "Enforcement of labor regulation, informal labor, and firm performance," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3756, The World Bank.
  188. Vollaard, Ben & Koning, Pierre, 2009. "The effect of police on crime, disorder and victim precaution. Evidence from a Dutch victimization survey," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 336-348, December.
  189. Aoki, Yu, 2014. "More Schooling, Less Youth Crime? Learning from an Earthquake in Japan," IZA Discussion Papers 8619, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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  191. John M. Nunley & Richard Alan Seals & Joachim Zietz, 2010. "Demographic Change, Macroeconomic Conditions, and the Murder Rate: The Case of the United States, 1934 to 2006," Auburn Economics Working Paper Series auwp2010-04, Department of Economics, Auburn University.
  192. Marceau, Nicolas & Mongrain, Steeve, 1999. "Dissuader le crime : un survol," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 75(1), pages 123-147, mars-juin.
  193. Kovandzic, Tomislav V. & Sloan, John J., 2002. "Police levels and crime rates revisited: A county-level analysis from Florida (1980-1998)," Journal of Criminal Justice, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 65-76.
  194. Paul A. Bekker & Jan van der Ploeg, 2000. "Instrumental Variable Estimation Based on Grouped Data," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 1862, Econometric Society.
  195. Brooks, Leah, 2008. "Volunteering to be taxed: Business improvement districts and the extra-governmental provision of public safety," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(1-2), pages 388-406, February.
  196. Entorf, Horst, 2012. "Certainty and Severity of Sanctions in Classical and Behavioral Models of Deterrence: A Survey," IZA Discussion Papers 6516, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  197. Maurice J.G. Bun, 2014. "Identifying the impact of deterrence on crime - internal versus external instruments," UvA-Econometrics Working Papers 14-03, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Dept. of Econometrics.
  198. Hanson, Andrew, 2009. "Local employment, poverty, and property value effects of geographically-targeted tax incentives: An instrumental variables approach," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 721-731, November.
  199. Horst Entorf & Hannes Spengler, 2005. "Ökonometrie der Kriminalität," Ifo Schnelldienst, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 58(16), pages 13-25, 08.
  200. Philip J. Cook & Jens Ludwig, 2002. "The Effects of Gun Prevalence on Burglary: Deterrence vs Inducement," NBER Working Papers 8926, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  201. Lance Lochner, 2001. "A Theoretical and Empirical Study of Individual Perceptions of the Criminal Justice System," RCER Working Papers 483, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
  202. repec:zbw:darddp:37290 is not listed on IDEAS
  203. Javier Núñez & Jorge Rivera & Xavier Villavicencio & Oscar Molina, 2003. "Determinantes socioeconómicos y demográficos del crimen en Chile," Estudios de Economia, University of Chile, Department of Economics, vol. 30(1 Year 20), pages 55-85, June.
  204. Lauridsen, Jorgen, 2010. "Is Polish Crime Economically Rational?," Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, Mid-Continent Regional Science Association, vol. 40(2).
  205. Menusch Khadjavi, 2014. "Deterrence Works for Criminals," Kiel Working Papers 1938, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  206. Emiliano Tealde, 2015. "Do Police Displace Crime? The Effect of the Favela Pacification Program in Rio de Janeiro," 2015 Papers pte274, Job Market Papers.
  207. Soares, Rodrigo R., 2004. "Development, crime and punishment: accounting for the international differences in crime rates," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 155-184, February.
  208. H. Naci Mocan & R. Kaj Gittings, 2001. "Pardons, Executions and Homicide," NBER Working Papers 8639, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  209. Cagala, Tobias & Glogowsky, Ulrich & Rincke, Johannes, 2014. "A field experiment on intertemporal enforcement spillovers," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 125(2), pages 171-174.
  210. Isaac Ehrlich, 1996. "Crime, Punishment, and the Market for Offenses," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 10(1), pages 43-67, Winter.
  211. Huttunen, Kristiina & Mälkönen, Ville, 2014. "The Effect of Rehabilitative Punishments on Juvenile Crime and Labor Market Outcomes," IZA Discussion Papers 8403, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  212. Guha, Brishti & Guha, Ashok S., 2012. "Crime and moral hazard: Does more policing necessarily induce private negligence?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 115(3), pages 455-459.
  213. Sean Muller, 2012. "Econometric methods and Reichenbach's principle," SALDRU Working Papers 85, Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town.
  214. Lauridsen, Jørgen T. & Zeren, Fatma & Ari, Ayse, 2014. "Is crime in Turkey economically rational?," Discussion Papers of Business and Economics 3/2014, Department of Business and Economics, University of Southern Denmark.
  215. Ren, Ling & Zhao, Jihong & Lovrich, Nicholas P., 2008. "Liberal versus conservative public policies on crime: What was the comparative track record during the 1990s?," Journal of Criminal Justice, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 316-325, August.
  216. Hannes Spengler, 2006. "Eine panelökonometrische Evaluation des deutschen Strafverfolgungssystems," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 226(6), pages 687-714, November.
  217. Amanda Ross & Anne Walker, 2014. "Low Priority Laws and the Allocation of Police Resources," Working Papers 14-06, Department of Economics, West Virginia University.
  218. Hope Corman & Kelly Noonan & Nancy E. Reichman & Ofira Schwartz-Soicher, 2006. "Crime and Circumstance: The Effects of Infant Health Shocks on Fathers' Criminal Activity," NBER Working Papers 12754, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  219. Lopez Uribe, Maria del Pilar, 2013. "Roads or Schools? Political Budget Cycles with different types of voters," MPRA Paper 50529, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.