The electoral budget cycle on municipal police expenditure
This paper analyzes the effects of electoral cycles on municipal police expenditure. We use a database with information on Spanish municipalities with more than 20,000 inhabitants for the period 2001–2008. Our data show that incumbents increase police spending 1 year before the elections, thus we confirm an electoral budget cycle on police expenditure in Spain. We also find that conservative parties are associated with increased spending on public safety. Population has a positive and significant impact on police expenditures per capita, which indicates diseconomies of scale. The theory on sub-national government spending shows that intergovernmental transfers per capita and taxes per capita are believed to impact local expenditures. Our model fits this assumption, showing a significant and positive influence of both variables on police expenditures. Finally, our model reports a positive impact of both immigration and economic level on police spending. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Volume (Year): 36 (2013)
Issue (Month): 3 (December)
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.springer.com|
|Order Information:||Web: http://www.springer.com/journal/10657|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Per Tovmo & Torberg Falch, 2002. "The flypaper effect and political strength," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 3(2), pages 153-170, 07.
- Kenneth Rogoff, 1987.
"Equilibrium Political Budget Cycles,"
NBER Working Papers
2428, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Baleiras, Rui Nuno & da Silva Costa, Jose, 2004. "To be or not to be in office again: an empirical test of a local political business cycle rationale," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 655-671, September.
- Blais, Andre & Nadeau, Richard, 1992. "The Electoral Budget Cycle," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 74(4), pages 389-403, December.
- Linda Veiga & Francisco Veiga, 2007.
"Political business cycles at the municipal level,"
Springer, vol. 131(1), pages 45-64, April.
- Linda Veiga & Francisco Veiga, 2004. "Political business cycles at the municipal level," ERSA conference papers ersa04p427, European Regional Science Association.
- Francisco José Veiga & Linda Gonçalves Veiga, 2004. "Political Business Cycles at the Municipal Level," NIPE Working Papers 4/2004, NIPE - Universidade do Minho.
- Ueli Grob & Stefan C. Wolter, 2006.
"Demographic Change and Public Education Spending a Conflict between Young and Old?,"
Economics of Education Working Paper Series
0008, University of Zurich, Institute for Strategy and Business Economics (ISU).
- Ueli Grob & Stefan C. Wolter, 2007. "Demographic Change and Public Education Spending: A Conflict between Young and Old?," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 277-292.
- Ueli Grob & Stefan C. Wolter, 2005. "Demographic Change and Public Education Spending: A Conflict between Young and Old?," CESifo Working Paper Series 1555, CESifo Group Munich.
- Michael Marlow & Alden Shiers, 1999. "Do law enforcement expenditures crowd-out public education expenditures?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(2), pages 255-266.
- Sarani Saha, 2011. "City-level analysis of the effect of political regimes on public good provision," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 147(1), pages 155-171, April.
- Levitt, Steven D, 1997.
"Using Electoral Cycles in Police Hiring to Estimate the Effect of Police on Crime,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 87(3), pages 270-90, June.
- Steven D. Levitt, 1995. "Using Electoral Cycles in Police Hiring to Estimate the Effect of Policeon Crime," NBER Working Papers 4991, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Zhao, Jihong & Ren, Ling & Lovrich, Nicholas P., 2010. "Budgetary support for police services in U.S. municipalities: Comparing political culture, socioeconomic characteristics and incrementalism as rival explanations for budget share allocation to police," Journal of Criminal Justice, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 266-275, May.
- Alberto Alesina & Reza Baqir & William Easterly, 1997.
"Public Goods and Ethnic Divisions,"
NBER Working Papers
6009, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Baqir, Reza & Easterly, William & Alesina, Alberto, 1999. "Public Goods and Ethnic Divisions," Scholarly Articles 4551797, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Alesina, Alberto & Baqir, Reza & Easterly, William, 1999. "Public goods and ethnic divisions," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2108, The World Bank.
- Drazen, Allan & Eslava, Marcela, 2010. "Electoral manipulation via voter-friendly spending: Theory and evidence," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(1), pages 39-52, May.
- Martial Foucault & Thierry Madies & Sonia Paty, 2008.
"Public spending interactions and local politics. Empirical evidence from French municipalities,"
Springer, vol. 137(1), pages 57-80, October.
- Sonia Paty & Martial Foucault & Thierry Madiès, 2008. "Public spending interactions and local politics: Empirical evidence from french municipalities," Post-Print halshs-00418871, HAL.
- Martial Foucault & Thierry Madies & Sonia Paty, 2008. "Public Spending Interactions and Local Politics. Empirical Evidence from French Municipalities," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-00339812, HAL.
- Kushner, J. & Masse, I., 1996.
"The Determinants of Municipal Expenditures in Ontario,"
1996-02, York (Canada) - Department of Economics.
- Kushner, J. & Masse, I., 1996. "The Determinants of Municipal Expenditures in Ontario," Working Papers 1996-02, Brock University, Department of Economics.
- Andrew Dyke, 2007. "Electoral cycles in the administration of criminal justice," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 133(3), pages 417-437, December.
- Bosch, Nuria & Suarez-Pandiello, Javier, 1995. "Seven Hypotheses about Public Choice and Local Spending (A Test from Spanish Municipalities)," Public Finance = Finances publiques, , vol. 50(1), pages 36-50.
- Harvey E. Brazer, 1959. "Introduction to "City Expenditures in the United States"," NBER Chapters, in: City Expenditures in the United States, pages 1-2 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- James Poterba, 1992.
"Capital Budgets, Borrowing Rules, and State Capital Spending,"
NBER Working Papers
4235, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Poterba, James M., 1995. "Capital budgets, borrowing rules, and state capital spending," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 165-187, February.
- Harvey E. Brazer, 1959. "City Expenditures in the United States," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number braz59-1, September.
- Anderson, T. W. & Hsiao, Cheng, 1982. "Formulation and estimation of dynamic models using panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 47-82, January.
- Gary S. Becker, 1968.
"Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 76, pages 169.
- Alberto Alesina & Reza Baqir & William Easterly, 1999. "Public Goods and Ethnic Divisions," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 114(4), pages 1243-1284.
- Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991.
"Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
- Tom Doan, . "RATS program to replicate Arellano-Bond 1991 dynamic panel," Statistical Software Components RTZ00169, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Dale Bails and Margie A. Tieslau, 2000. "The Impact of Fiscal Constitutions on State and Local Expenditures," Cato Journal, Cato Journal, Cato Institute, vol. 20(2), Fall.
- Antonio Merlo, 2003. "Income Distribution, Police Expenditures, and Crime: A Political Economy Perspective," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 1(2-3), pages 450-458, 04/05.
- Borcherding, Thomas E & Deacon, Robert T, 1972. "The Demand for the Services of Non-Federal Governments," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(5), pages 891-901, December.
- Walzer, Norman, 1972. "Economies of Scale and Municipal Police Services: The Illinois Experience," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 54(4), pages 431-38, November.
- Per Pettersson-Lidbom, 2001. "An Empirical Investigation of the Strategic Use of Debt," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 109(3), pages 570-583, June.
- repec:cto:journl:v:20:y:2000:i:2:p:255-277 is not listed on IDEAS
- Roubini, Nouriel & Sachs, Jeffrey D., 1989. "Political and economic determinants of budget deficits in the industrial democracies," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 903-933, May.
- Solomon Fabricant & Robert E. Lipsey, 1952. "The Trend of Government Activity in the United States Since 1900," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number fabr52-1, September.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:ejlwec:v:36:y:2013:i:3:p:447-469. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla)or (Rebekah McClure)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.