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Gender, Crime and Punishment: Evidence from Women Police Stations in India

Author

Listed:
  • Sofia Amaral

    (ifo Institute and CESifo)

  • Sonia Bhalotra

    (ISER - University of Essex)

  • Nishith Prakash

    (University of Connecticut)

Abstract

We study the impact of an innovative policy intervention in India that led to a rapid expansion in ‘all women police stations’ across cities in India on reported crime against women and deterrence. Using an identification strategy that exploits the staggered implementation of women police stations across cities and nationally representative data on various measures of crime and deterrence, we find that the opening of police stations increased reported crime against women by 22 percent. This is due to increases in reports of female kidnappings and domestic violence. In contrast, reports of genderspecific mortality, self-reported intimate-partner violence and other non-gender specific crimes remain unchanged. We also show that victims move away from reporting crimes in general stations and that self-reported use of support services increased in affected areas. The implementation of women police stations also led to marginal improvements in measures of police deterrence such as arrest rates.

Suggested Citation

  • Sofia Amaral & Sonia Bhalotra & Nishith Prakash, 2019. "Gender, Crime and Punishment: Evidence from Women Police Stations in India," Boston University - Department of Economics - The Institute for Economic Development Working Papers Series dp-309, Boston University - Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:bos:iedwpr:dp-309
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    Cited by:

    1. Menon, Seetha, 2021. "The effect of domestic violence on cardiovascular risk," Discussion Papers of Business and Economics 7/2021, University of Southern Denmark, Department of Business and Economics.
    2. Chaudhary, Amit, 2021. "Do workers, managers, and stations matter for effective policing? A decomposition of productivity into three dimensions of unobserved heterogeneity," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 1377, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
    3. Gustavo J Bobonis & Roberto Castro & Juan S Morales, 2020. "Legal Reforms, Conditional Cash Transfers, and Intimate Partner Violence: Evidence from Mexico," Working Papers tecipa-678, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
    4. Saloni Khurana & Kanika Mahajan, 2019. "Public Safety for Women: Is Regulation of Social Drinking Spaces Effective?," Working Papers 11, Ashoka University, Department of Economics.
    5. Bhalotra,Sonia R. & Kambhampati,Uma & Rawlings,Samantha & Siddique,Zahra, 2020. "Intimate Partner Violence : The Influence of Job Opportunities for Men and Women," Policy Research Working Paper Series 9118, The World Bank.
    6. Guadalupe Kavanaugh & Maria Sviatschi & Iva Trako, 2018. "Women Officers, Gender Violence and Human Capital: Evidence from Women's Justice Centers in Peru," Working Papers halshs-01828539, HAL.
    7. Rao, Smitha, 2020. "A natural disaster and intimate partner violence: Evidence over time," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 247(C).
    8. Guadalupe Kavanaugh & Maria Sviatschi & Iva Trako, 2018. "Women Officers, Gender Violence and Human Capital: Evidence from Women's Justice Centers in Peru," PSE Working Papers halshs-01828539, HAL.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Women police station; Crime against women; Women in policing; India; Pro-active behaviour;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J12 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J78 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Public Policy (including comparable worth)
    • K14 - Law and Economics - - Basic Areas of Law - - - Criminal Law
    • K31 - Law and Economics - - Other Substantive Areas of Law - - - Labor Law
    • K42 - Law and Economics - - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior - - - Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law
    • N92 - Economic History - - Regional and Urban History - - - U.S.; Canada: 1913-
    • I12 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health Behavior

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