Powerful Women: Does Exposure Reduce Bias?
We exploit random assignment of gender quotas across Indian village councils to investigate whether having a female chief councillor affects public opinion towards female leaders. Villagers who have never been required to have a female leader prefer male leaders and perceive hypothetical female leaders as less effective than their male counterparts, when stated performance is identical. Exposure to a female leader does not alter villagers' taste preference for male leaders. However, it weakens stereotypes about gender roles in the public and domestic spheres and eliminates the negative bias in how female leaders' effectiveness is perceived among male villagers. Female villagers exhibit less prior bias, but are also less likely to know about or participate in local politics; as a result, their attitudes are largely unaffected. Consistent with our experimental findings, villagers rate their women leaders as less effective when exposed to them for the first, but not second, time. These changes in attitude are electorally meaningful: after 10 years of the quota policy, women are more likely to stand for and win free seats in villages that have been continuously required to have a female chief councillor.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
|Date of creation:||Jul 2008|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 77 Bastwick Street, London EC1V 3PZ.|
Phone: 44 - 20 - 7183 8801
Fax: 44 - 20 - 7183 8820
|Order Information:|| Email: |
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Dan-Olof Rooth, 2007. "Implicit Discrimination in Hiring â€“ Real World Evidence," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 0705, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
- Timothy Besley & Rohini Pande & Vijayendra Rao, 2007.
"Just Rewards?Local Politics and Public ResourceAllocation in South India,"
STICERD - Development Economics Papers - From 2008 this series has been superseded by Economic Organisation and Public Policy Discussion Papers
49, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
- Timothy Besley & Rohini Pande & Vijayendra Rao, 2012. "Just Rewards? Local Politics and Public Resource Allocation in South India," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 26(2), pages 191-216.
- Timothy Besley & Rohini Pande & Vijayendra Rao, 2007. "Just rewards? Local politics and public resource allocation in South India," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 3763, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Coate, Stephen & Loury, Glenn C, 1993.
"Will Affirmative-Action Policies Eliminate Negative Stereotypes?,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 83(5), pages 1220-1240, December.
- Coate, S. & Loury, G.C., 1992. "Will Affirmative Action Policies Eliminate Negative Stereotypes?," Papers 3, Boston University - Department of Economics.
- Jeffrey R Kling & Jeffrey B Liebman & Lawrence F Katz, 2007.
"Experimental Analysis of Neighborhood Effects,"
Econometric Society, vol. 75(1), pages 83-119, 01.
- Esther Duflo, 2005. "Why Political Reservations?," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(2-3), pages 668-678, 04/05.
- Sendhil Mullainathan & Ebonya Washington, 2006.
"Sticking with Your Vote: Cognitive Dissonance and Voting,"
NBER Working Papers
11910, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ebonya Washington & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2009. "Sticking with Your Vote: Cognitive Dissonance and Political Attitudes," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 1(1), pages 86-111, January.
- Mullainathan, Sendhil & Washington, Ebonya, 2007. "Sticking with Your Vote: Cognitive Dissonance Voting," Working Papers 14, Yale University, Department of Economics.
- Dirk Bergemann & Juuso Valimaki, 2006. "Bandit Problems," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1551, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Cecilia Rouse & Claudia Goldin, 2000.
"Orchestrating Impartiality: The Impact of "Blind" Auditions on Female Musicians,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 90(4), pages 715-741, September.
- Claudia Goldin & Cecilia Rouse, 1997. "Orchestrating Impartiality: The Impact of "Blind" Auditions on Female Musicians," NBER Working Papers 5903, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Rooth, Dan-Olof, 2007. "Implicit Discrimination in Hiring: Real World Evidence," IZA Discussion Papers 2764, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- FRECHETTE, Guillaume R. & MANIQUET, François & MORELLI, Massimo, 2006.
"Incumbents’ interests, voters’ bias and gender quotas,"
CORE Discussion Papers
2006083, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Guillaume R., FRECHETTE & François, MANIQUET & Massimo, MORELLI, 2006. "Incumbents’ Interests, Voters’ Bias and Gender Quotas," Discussion Papers (ECON - Département des Sciences Economiques) 2006042, Université catholique de Louvain, Département des Sciences Economiques.
- Kerwin Kofi Charles & Jonathan Guryan, 2007. "Prejudice and The Economics of Discrimination," NBER Working Papers 13661, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Marianne Bertrand & Dolly Chugh & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2005. "Implicit Discrimination," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(2), pages 94-98, May.
- Kaivan Munshi & Mark Rosenzweig, 2008.
"The Efficacy of Parochial Politics: Caste, Commitment, and Competence in Indian Local Governments,"
964, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
- Munshi, Kaivan & Rosenzweig, Mark, 2008. "The Efficacy of Parochial Politics: Caste, Commitment, and Competence in Indian Local Government," Working Papers 53, Yale University, Department of Economics.
- Kaivan Munshi & Mark Rosenzweig, 2008. "The Efficacy of Parochial Politics: Caste, Commitment, and Competence in Indian Local Governments," NBER Working Papers 14335, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Dennis J. Aigner & Glen G. Cain, 1977. "Statistical Theories of Discrimination in Labor Markets," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 30(2), pages 175-187, January.
- Raghabendra Chattopadhyay & Esther Duflo, 2004.
"Women as Policy Makers: Evidence from a Randomized Policy Experiment in India,"
Econometric Society, vol. 72(5), pages 1409-1443, 09.
- Raghabendra Chattopadhyay & Esther Duflo, 2004. "Women as policy makers: Evidence from a randomized policy experiment in india," Framed Field Experiments 00224, The Field Experiments Website.
- Matland, Richard E., 1994. "Putting Scandinavian Equality to the Test: An Experimental Evaluation of Gender Stereotyping of Political Candidates in a Sample of Norwegian Voters," British Journal of Political Science, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(02), pages 273-292, April.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:6922. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.