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Gender, Crime and Punishment: Evidence from Women Police Stations in India

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  • Amaral, Sofia

    (University of Munich)

  • Bhalotra, Sonia R.

    (University of Warwick)

  • Prakash, Nishith

    (Northeastern University)

Abstract

We examine the impact of establishing women police stations (WPS) on reporting of gender- based violence. Using administrative crime data and exploiting staggered implementation across Indian cities, we find that the opening of WPS is associated with an increase in police reports of crimes against women of 29 percent, a result driven by domestic violence. This appears to reflect reporting rather than incidence as we find no changes in femicide or in survey-reported domestic violence. We also find some evidence of an increase in women's labor supply following WPS opening, consistent with women feeling safer once the costs of reporting violence fall.

Suggested Citation

  • Amaral, Sofia & Bhalotra, Sonia R. & Prakash, Nishith, 2021. "Gender, Crime and Punishment: Evidence from Women Police Stations in India," IZA Discussion Papers 14250, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp14250
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    3. Magdalena Delaporte & Francisco Pino, 2022. "Female Political Representation and Violence Against Women: Evidence from Brazil," Working Papers wp534, University of Chile, Department of Economics.
    4. Seetha Menon, 2023. "The effect of domestic violence on cardiovascular risk," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 21(2), pages 371-395, June.
    5. Michele Battisti & Ilpo Kauppinen & Britta Rude, 2022. "Twitter and Crime: The Effect of Social Movements on GenderBased Violence," ifo Working Paper Series 381, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
    6. Denti, Daria & Iammarino, Simona, 2022. "Coming Out of the Woods. Do local support services influence the propensity to report sexual violence?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 193(C), pages 334-352.
    7. Monica Kapuria & Edward R. Maguire, 2022. "Performance Management and the Police Response to Women in India," Social Sciences, MDPI, vol. 11(2), pages 1-17, February.
    8. Chaudhary, Amit, 2021. "Do workers, managers, and stations matter for effective policing? A decomposition of productivity into three dimensions of unobserved heterogeneity," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 1377, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
    9. Sonia Bhalotra & Uma Kambhampati & Samantha Rawlings & Zahra Siddique, 2021. "Intimate Partner Violence: The Influence of Job Opportunities for Men and Women," The World Bank Economic Review, World Bank, vol. 35(2), pages 461-479.
    10. Perrotta Berlin, Maria & Campa, Pamela & Paltseva, Elena & Krumina, Marija & Pluta, Anna & Shpak, Solomiya, 2022. "Domestic violence legislation - Awareness and support in Latvia, Russia and Ukraine," SITE Working Paper Series 58, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics.
    11. Roman, Soraya & Aguiar-Palma, Marina & Machado, Cecilia, 2023. "A tale of two cities: Heterogeneous effects of COVID-19 quarantine on domestic violence in Brazil," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 331(C).
    12. Gustavo J Bobonis & Roberto Castro & Juan S Morales, 2020. "Legal Reforms, Conditional Cash Transfers, and Intimate Partner Violence: Evidence from Mexico," Working Papers tecipa-678, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
    13. Saloni Khurana & Kanika Mahajan, 2022. "Public Safety for Women: Is Regulation of Social Drinking Spaces Effective?," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 58(1), pages 164-182, January.
    14. Bellés Obrero, Cristina & Rice, Caoimhe T. & Castello, Judit Vall, 2023. "Hit Where It Hurts: Healthcare Access and Intimate Partner Violence," IZA Discussion Papers 15994, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    15. Guadalupe Kavanaugh & Maria Micaela Sviatschi & Iva Trako, 2018. "Women Officers, Gender Violence and Human Capital: Evidence from Women's Justice Centers in Peru," Working Papers halshs-01828539, HAL.
    16. Etienne Lwamba & Shannon Shisler & Will Ridlehoover & Meital Kupfer & Nkululeko Tshabalala & Promise Nduku & Laurenz Langer & Sean Grant & Ada Sonnenfeld & Daniela Anda & John Eyers & Birte Snilstveit, 2022. "Strengthening women's empowerment and gender equality in fragile contexts towards peaceful and inclusive societies: A systematic review and meta‐analysis," Campbell Systematic Reviews, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 18(1), March.
    17. Rao, Smitha, 2020. "A natural disaster and intimate partner violence: Evidence over time," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 247(C).
    18. Guadalupe Kavanaugh & Maria Micaela Sviatschi & Iva Trako, 2018. "Women Officers, Gender Violence and Human Capital: Evidence from Women's Justice Centers in Peru," PSE Working Papers halshs-01828539, HAL.
    19. Davis, Lewis & Mavisakalyan, Astghik & Weber, Clas, 2022. "Gendered Language and Gendered Violence," GLO Discussion Paper Series 1127, Global Labor Organization (GLO).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    women police stations; gender-based violence; women in policing; India;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J12 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J78 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Public Policy (including comparable worth)
    • K14 - Law and Economics - - Basic Areas of Law - - - Criminal Law
    • K31 - Law and Economics - - Other Substantive Areas of Law - - - Labor Law
    • K42 - Law and Economics - - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior - - - Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law
    • N92 - Economic History - - Regional and Urban History - - - U.S.; Canada: 1913-
    • I12 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health Behavior

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