IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login

Citations for "The Resurgence of Growth in the Late 1990s: Is Information Technology the Story?"

by Stephen D. Oliner & Daniel E. Sichel

For a complete description of this item, click here. For a RSS feed for citations of this item, click here.
as in new window

  1. Fairlie, Robert, 2014. "The Personal Computer and Entrepreneurship," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt0nm6x99w, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
  2. Cette, Gilbert & Mairesse, Jacques & Kocoglu, Yusuf, 2005. "ICT diffusion and potential output growth," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 231-234, May.
  3. Kevin J. Lansing, 2008. "Speculative growth and overreaction to technology shocks," Working Paper Series 2008-08, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  4. Nick Bloom & Raffaella Sadun & John Van Reenen, 2007. "Americans do I.T. better: US multinationals and the productivity miracle," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 4555, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  5. Gabriele Pellegrino, 2015. "Barriers to Innovation: Can Firm Age Help Lower Them?," SPRU Working Paper Series 2015-33, SPRU - Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex.
  6. Atzeni, Gianfranco E. & Carboni, Oliviero A., 2006. "ICT productivity and firm propensity to innovative investment: Evidence from Italian microdata," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 139-156, June.
  7. Sunday Mauton A. Posu, 2006. "Information and Communication Technologies in the Nigerian Economy," Papers of the Annual IUE-SUNY Cortland Conference in Economics, in: Proceedings of the Conference on Human and Economic Resources, pages 327-337 Izmir University of Economics.
  8. Daniel Wilson, 2008. "Investment Behavior Of U.S. Firms Over Heterogeneous Capital Goods: A Snapshot," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 54(2), pages 269-278, 06.
  9. Castellani, Davide & Piva, Mariacristina & Schubert, Torben & Vivarelli, Marco, 2016. "The Productivity Impact of R&D Investment: A Comparison between the EU and the US," IZA Discussion Papers 9937, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. Clarke, George R.G., 2008. "Has the internet increased exports for firms from low and middle-income countries," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 16-37, March.
  11. David G. Mayes & Matti Virén, 2004. "Asymmetries in the Euro area economy," Macroeconomics 0404024, EconWPA.
  12. Davide Consoli & Francesco Vona & Francesco Rentocchini, 2014. "That was then, this is now: Skills and Routinization in the 2000s," SPRU Working Paper Series 2014-18, SPRU - Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex.
  13. Gilbert Cette & Christian Pfister, 2003. "The challenges of the "new economy" for monetary policy," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Monetary policy in a changing environment, volume 19, pages 213-233 Bank for International Settlements.
  14. Basant, Rakesh & Commander, Simon & Harrison, Rupert & Menezes-Filho, Naercio, 2006. "ICT Adoption and Productivity in Developing Countries: New Firm Level Evidence from Brazil and India," IZA Discussion Papers 2294, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  15. Rebecca L Driver & Jennifer V Greenslade & Richard G Pierse, 2003. "The role of expectations in estimates of the NAIRU in the United States and the United Kingdom," Bank of England working papers 180, Bank of England.
  16. Benoit Dostie & Rajshri Jayaraman, 2008. "Organizational Redesign, Information Technologies and Workplace Productivity," Cahiers de recherche 08-06, HEC Montréal, Institut d'économie appliquée.
  17. Francois, P. & Roberts, J., 2001. "Contracting Productivity Growth," Discussion Paper 2001-35, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  18. Théophile, AZOMAHOU & Raouf, BOUCEKKINE & Phu, NUYEN VAN, 2003. "Energy consumption, technological progress and economic policy," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 2003025, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
  19. John G. Fernald, 2012. "Productivity and potential output before, during, and after the Great Recession," Working Paper Series 2012-18, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  20. Philipp Wegmueller, 2015. "International Evidence on Time-Variation in Trend Labor Productivity Growth," Diskussionsschriften dp1602, Universitaet Bern, Departement Volkswirtschaft.
  21. Nicholas Oulton, 2010. "Long term implications of the ICT revolution: applying the lessons of growth theory and growth accounting," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 49303, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  22. Jesús Rodríguez López & Diego Martínez López & José Luis Torres Chacón, 2007. "The Productivity Paradox and the New Economy: The Spanish Case," Working Papers 07.01, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Department of Economics.
  23. Esteban Alfaro Cortés & José-Luis Alfaro Navarro, 2011. "Do ICT Influence Economic Growth and Human Development in European Union Countries?," International Advances in Economic Research, International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 17(1), pages 28-44, February.
  24. Baliamoune, Mina N., 2002. "The New Economy and Developing Countries: Assessing the Role of ICT Diffusion," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  25. Jaison Abel & Todd Gabe, 2011. "Human Capital and Economic Activity in Urban America," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(8), pages 1079-1090.
  26. repec:pri:cepsud:113krusell is not listed on IDEAS
  27. Marcin Piatkowski, 2004. "Does ICT Investment Matter for Growth and Labor Productivity in Transition Economies?," Development and Comp Systems 0402008, EconWPA.
  28. Dale W. Jorgenson & Koji Nomura, 2005. "The Industry Origins of Japanese Economic Growth," NBER Working Papers 11800, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  29. Luca Casolaro & Giorgio Gobbi, 2004. "Information technology and productivity changes in the Italian banking industry," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 489, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  30. Francesco Daveri, 2002. "The New Economy in Europe, 1992--2001," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 18(3), pages 345-362.
  31. Matteo Bugamelli & Patrizio Pagano, 2004. "Barriers to investment in ICT," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(20), pages 2275-2286.
  32. Lach, Saul & Shiff, Gil & Trajtenberg, Manuel, 2008. "Together but Apart: ICT and Productivity Growth in Israel," CEPR Discussion Papers 6732, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  33. Howell, Bronwyn & Obren, Mark, 2002. "Broadband Diffusion: Lags from Vintage Capital, Learning by Doing, Information Barriers and Network Effects," Working Paper Series 3896, Victoria University of Wellington, The New Zealand Institute for the Study of Competition and Regulation.
  34. Ronald Kumar, 2014. "Exploring the role of technology, tourism and financial development: an empirical study of Vietnam," Quality & Quantity- International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 48(5), pages 2881-2898, September.
  35. Perera, Anil & Ralston, Deborah & Wickramanayake, Jayasinghe, 2013. "Central bank financial strength and inflation: Is there a robust link?," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 399-414.
  36. Ann Bartel & Casey Ichniowski & Kathryn L. Shaw & Ricardo Correa, 2009. "International Differences in the Adoption and Impact of New Information Technologies and New HR Practices: The Valve-Making Industry in the United States and United Kingdom," NBER Chapters, in: International Differences in the Business Practices and Productivity of Firms, pages 55-78 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  37. P. Manasse & L. Stanca & A. Turrini, 2001. "Wage Premia and Skill Upgrading in Italy: Why didn't the Hound Bark?," Working Papers 423, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
  38. Robert C. Feenstra & Benjamin R. Mandel & Marshall B. Reinsdorf & Matthew J. Slaughter, 2013. "Effects of Terms of Trade Gains and Tariff Changes on the Measurement of US Productivity Growth," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 5(1), pages 59-93, February.
  39. Ronia Hawash & Guenter Lang, 2010. "The Impact of Information Technology on Productivity in Developing Countries," Working Papers 19, The German University in Cairo, Faculty of Management Technology.
  40. Park, Mi-Hee & Koo, Won W., 2005. "Recent Development in Infrastructure and Its Impact on Agricultural and Non-agricultural Trade," 2005 Annual meeting, July 24-27, Providence, RI 19525, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  41. Dale W. Jorgenson, 2007. "Information Technology and the G7 Economies," NBER Chapters, in: Hard-to-Measure Goods and Services: Essays in Honor of Zvi Griliches, pages 325-350 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  42. Qiao, Zhuo & Smyth, Russell & Wong, Wing-Keung, 2008. "Volatility switching and regime interdependence between information technology stocks 1995-2005," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 139-156.
  43. Belorgey, N. & Lecat, R. & Maury, P-M., 2004. "Determinants of Productivity per Employee: an Empirical Estimation Using Panel Data," Working papers 110, Banque de France.
  44. Christopher Knittel & Robert Feenstra, 2006. "Re-Assessing the U.S. Quality Adjustment to Computer Prices: The Role of Durability and Changing Software," Working Papers 632, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
  45. Berk, Jan Marc, 2001. "New economy, old central banks? Monetary transmission in a new economic environment," Serie Research Memoranda 0032, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
  46. Stephen D. Oliner & Daniel E. Sichel, 2002. "Information technology and productivity: where are we now and where are we going?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2002-29, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  47. Jasmin Thomas, 2016. "Explaining Industry Differences in IT Investment Per Worker Between Canada and the United States, 2002-2013," CSLS Research Reports 2016-01, Centre for the Study of Living Standards.
  48. Nicholas Crafts, 2004. "Social savings as a measure of the contribution of a new technology to economic growth," Economic History Working Papers 22554, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Economic History.
  49. Everaert, Gerdie, 2014. "A panel analysis of the fisher effect with an unobserved I(1) world real interest rate," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 198-210.
  50. Jaime R. Marquez, 2002. "Productivity, investment, and current accounts: reassessing the evidence," International Finance Discussion Papers 742, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  51. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/5573 is not listed on IDEAS
  52. Muller, Patrice, 2002. "Internet Use in Transition Economies: Economic and Institutional Determinants," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  53. Nathan S. Balke & Mark E. Wohar, 2002. "Low-Frequency Movements in Stock Prices: A State-Space Decomposition," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(4), pages 649-667, November.
  54. Andreas Kuhlmann, 2006. "German Productivity - A Reassessment via the New Ifo Productivity Database," Ifo Working Paper Series Ifo Working Papers No. 35, Ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
  55. Domanski, Dietrich, 2003. "Idiosyncratic Risk in the 1990s: Is It an IT Story?," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  56. Mirko Draca & Raffaella Sadun & John Van Reenen, 2006. "Productivity and ICT: a review of the evidence," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 4561, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  57. Rafael Fernández & Enrique Palazuelos, 2009. "Labor productivity: a comparative analysis of the European Union and United States, for the period 1994-2007," Working Papers wp208, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
  58. Concetta Castiglione, 2011. "Technical Efficiency and ICT Investment in Italian Manufacturing Firms," Post-Print hal-00682262, HAL.
  59. Martín-Oliver, Alfredo & Salas-Fumás, Vicente, 2008. "The output and profit contribution of information technology and advertising investments in banks," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 229-255, April.
  60. Y. Biondi & P. Giannoccolo & A. Reberioux, 2009. "Efficient monitoring and control in intangibles-driven economies: is full independence always required?," Working Papers 664, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
  61. Peter McAdam & Alpo Willman, 2012. "Technology, Utilization and Inflation: What Drives the New Keynesian Phillips Curve?," School of Economics Discussion Papers 0912, School of Economics, University of Surrey.
  62. Sang-Yong Tom Lee & Xiao Jia Guo, 2004. "Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and Spillover: A Panel Analysis," Econometric Society 2004 Far Eastern Meetings 722, Econometric Society.
  63. Karl Aiginger & Michael Landesmann, 2002. "Competitive Economic Performance: The European View," WIFO Working Papers 179, WIFO.
  64. Boucekkine, Raouf & Crifo, Patricia, 2008. "Human Capital Accumulation And The Transition From Specialization To Multitasking," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 12(03), pages 320-344, June.
  65. Kim, Kibae & Jung, Sungdo & Lee, Changjun & Hwang, Junseok, 2013. "Structure of technology evolution: The way on which ICT industry emerged in Korea," 24th European Regional ITS Conference, Florence 2013 88508, International Telecommunications Society (ITS).
  66. Susanto Basu & John G. Fernald, 2009. "What do we know and not know about potential output?," Working Paper Series 2009-05, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  67. Henri Sterdyniak & Hélène Baudchon & Odile Chagny & Thierry Latreille & Catherine Mathieu & Olivier Passet & Christine Rifflart & Paola Veroni & Hervé Péléraux & Emilie Raynaud, 2000. "Une certaine hésitation : Perspectives 2000-2001 pour l'économie mondiale," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/2465, Sciences Po.
  68. Joel Mokyr & Hans-Joachim Voth, 2006. "Understanding Growth in Europe, 1700-1870: Theory and Evidence," DEGIT Conference Papers c011_002, DEGIT, Dynamics, Economic Growth, and International Trade.
  69. Chun, H. & Nadiri, M.I., 2002. "Decomposing Productivity Growth in the U.S. Computer Industry," Working Papers 02-04, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
  70. Baoline Chen & Peter Zadrozny, 2013. "Further model-based estimates of US total manufacturing production capital and technology, 1949–2005," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 61-73, February.
  71. Chen, Baoline & Zadrozny, Peter A., 2009. "Estimated U.S. manufacturing production capital and technology based on an estimated dynamic structural economic model," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 1398-1418, July.
  72. Claudio MATTALIA, 2002. "Information Technologies, Economic Growth and Productivity Shocks," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 2002026, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
  73. Tarkhani, Faouzi & Harchaoui, Tarek, 2004. "Whatever Happened to Canada-United States Economic Growth and Productivity Performance in the Information Age?," Economic Analysis (EA) Research Paper Series 2004025e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
  74. Elena Ketteni & Theofanis Mamuneas & Panos Pashardes, 2013. "ICT and Energy Use: Patterns of Substitutability and Complementarity in Production," Cyprus Economic Policy Review, University of Cyprus, Economics Research Centre, vol. 7(1), pages 63-86, June.
  75. Karl Whelan, 2002. "Some New Economy Lessons for Macroeconomists," Recherches économiques de Louvain, De Boeck Université, vol. 68(1), pages 21-36.
  76. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Sbia, Rashid & HAMDI, Helmi & Ur Rehman, Ijaz, 2014. "The Role of Information Communication Technology and Economic Growth in Recent Electricity Demand: Fresh Evidence from Combine Cointegration Approach in UAE," MPRA Paper 53226, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 25 Jan 2014.
  77. Giancarlo Corsetti & John Flemming & Seppo Honkapohja & Willi Leibfritz & Gilles Saint-Paul & Hans-Werner Sinn & Xavier Vives, 2002. "Growth and Productivity," EEAG Report on the European Economy, CESifo Group Munich, vol. 0, pages 57-70, 04.
    • Giancarlo Corsetti & John Flemming & Seppo Honkapohja & Willi Leibfritz & Gilles Saint-Paul & Hans-Werner Sinn & Xavier Vives, 2002. "Growth and Productivity," CESifo Forum, Ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 2002(CESIFOFOR), pages 57-70, 04.
  78. Milton H. Marquis & Bharat Trehan, 2005. "On using relative prices to measure capital-specific technological progress," Working Paper Series 2005-02, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  79. Philippe Beaugrand, 2004. "And Schumpeter Said, "This is How Thou Shalt Grow"; Further Quest for Economic Growth in Poor Countries," IMF Working Papers 04/40, International Monetary Fund.
  80. Antonio Cubel & Vicente Esteve & Maria Teresa Sanchis & Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis, 2014. "The effect of foreign and domestic patents on total factor productivity during the second half of the 20th century," Working Papers 06/14, Instituto Universitario de Análisis Económico y Social.
  81. Jalava, Jukka & Pohjola, Matti, 2002. "Economic growth in the New Economy: evidence from advanced economies," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 189-210, June.
  82. Sylvie Occelli & Alessandro Sciullo, 2011. "Revisting The Relationships Between Broadband Diffusion And Regional System Development: A Primer," ERSA conference papers ersa11p702, European Regional Science Association.
  83. Diego Martínez & Jesús Rodríguez & José L. Torres, 2008. "ICT-specific technological change and productivity growth in the US 1980-2004," Working Papers 2008-4, Universidad de Málaga, Department of Economic Theory, Málaga Economic Theory Research Center.
  84. Inklaar, Robert & Timmer, Marcel & van Ark, Bart, 2006. "Mind the gap! International Comparisons of Productivity in Services and Goods Production," GGDC Research Memorandum GD-89, Groningen Growth and Development Centre, University of Groningen.
  85. Robert W. Arnold, 2009. "The challenges of estimating potential output in real time," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jul, pages 271-290.
  86. Diego Martínez & Jesús Rodríguez-López & José L. Torres, 2008. "Productivity growth and technological change in Europe and the U.S," Working Papers 2008-10, Universidad de Málaga, Department of Economic Theory, Málaga Economic Theory Research Center.
  87. Todd Gabe & Jaison Abel & Adrienne Ross & Kevin Stolarick, 2012. "Knowledge in Cities," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 49(6), pages 1179-1200, May.
  88. Freebairn, J., 2001. "Some Market Effects of E-Commerce," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 789, The University of Melbourne.
  89. Zhuo (June) Cheng & Barrie R. Nault, 2007. "Industry Level Supplier-Driven IT Spillovers," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 53(8), pages 1199-1216, August.
  90. Chee Kong Wong, 2004. "Information Technology, Productivity and Economic Growth in China," Economics Discussion / Working Papers 04-21, The University of Western Australia, Department of Economics.
  91. Bashir, Sadaf & Sadowski, B. M., 2014. "General purpose technologies: A survey, a critique and future research directions," 25th European Regional ITS Conference, Brussels 2014 101443, International Telecommunications Society (ITS).
  92. Paunov C. & Rollo V., 2014. "Has the internet fostered inclusive innovation in the developing world?," MERIT Working Papers 084, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  93. Jesús Rodríguez López, 2010. "Growth, fluctuations and technology in the U.S. post-war economy," Working Papers 10.01, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Department of Economics.
  94. Umino, Shingo, 2014. "Real-time estimation of the equilibrium real interest rate: Evidence from Japan," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 17-32.
  95. Hornstein, Andreas & Krusell, Per & Violante, Giovanni L, 2005. "The Effects of Technical Change on Labour Market Inequalities," CEPR Discussion Papers 5025, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  96. Frédéric MIRIBEL, 2006. "Is There A Productivity Paradox At The Regional Level? An Empirical Study Of The Growth Contribution Of It Capital Stock At The State-Level In The United States Between 1977 And 1997," Region et Developpement, Region et Developpement, LEAD, Universite du Sud - Toulon Var, vol. 24, pages 109-133.
  97. Cogley, Timothy, 2005. "How fast can the new economy grow? A Bayesian analysis of the evolution of trend growth," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 179-207, June.
  98. Karl Aiginger, 2003. "The Relative Importance of Labour Market Reforms to Economic Growth," WIFO Working Papers 208, WIFO.
  99. Ortega-Argilés, Raquel & Piva, Mariacristina & Vivarelli, Marco, 2011. "The Transatlantic Productivity Gap: Is R&D the Main Culprit?," IZA Discussion Papers 5586, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  100. J. Bradford DeLong, 2002. "Do We Have a "New" Macroeconomy?," NBER Chapters, in: Innovation Policy and the Economy, Volume 2, pages 163-184 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  101. Marattin, Luigi & Salotti, Simone, 2011. "Productivity and per capita GDP growth: The role of the forgotten factors," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 1219-1225, May.
  102. Salome Baslandze, 2015. "The Role of the IT Revolution in Knowledge Diffusion, Innovation and Reallocation," 2015 Meeting Papers 1488, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  103. Takuji Fueki & Takuji Kawamoto, 2008. "Does Information Technology Raise Japan's Productivity?," Bank of Japan Working Paper Series 08-E-8, Bank of Japan.
  104. Kiley, Michael T., 2001. "Computers and growth with frictions: aggregate and disaggregate evidence," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 55(1), pages 171-215, December.
  105. Benjamin Hunt & Alessandro Rebucci, 2003. "The U.S. Dollar and the Trade Deficit; What Accounts for the Late 1990's?," IMF Working Papers 03/194, International Monetary Fund.
  106. Lansing, Kevin J., 2012. "Speculative growth, overreaction, and the welfare cost of technology-driven bubbles," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 83(3), pages 461-483.
  107. Scherrer, Christoph, 2001. "New economy: Explosive growth driven by a productivity revolution?," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Regulation of Work FS II 01-204, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
  108. Onyeiwu, Steve, 2002. "Inter-Country Variations in Digital Technology in Africa: Evidence, Determinants, and Policy Applications," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  109. Bronwyn HOWELL & Arthur GRIMES, 2010. "Productivity Questions for Public Sector Fast Fibre Network Financiers," Communications & Strategies, IDATE, Com&Strat dept., vol. 1(78), pages 127-146, 2nd quart.
  110. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/2465 is not listed on IDEAS
  111. Clarke, George R.G., 2002. "Does Internet Connectivity Affect Export Performance? Evidence from Transition Economies," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  112. Paul J.J. Welfens & Christian Lutz, 2012. "Green ICT Dynamics: Key Issues and Findings for Germany," EIIW Discussion paper disbei188, Universitätsbibliothek Wuppertal, University Library.
  113. Tahir Mahmood, 2012. "Labour Productivity Convergence in 52 Industries: A Panel Data Analysis of Some European Countries," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 2(3), pages 320-339.
  114. Stephen D. Oliner & Daniel E. Sichel & Kevin J. Stiroh, 2007. "Explaining a productive decade," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2007-63, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  115. Regis Bonelli, 2015. "Labor Productivity in Brazil during the 1990s," Discussion Papers 0117, Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA.
  116. Mattalia, Claudio, 2013. "Embodied technological change and technological revolution: Which sectors matter?," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 249-264.
  117. Raquel Ortega-Argilés, 2012. "The Transatlantic Productivity Gap: A Survey Of The Main Causes," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(3), pages 395-419, 07.
  118. Castiglione, Concetta & Infante, Davide, 2012. "ICTs and lags in technical efficiency gains. A stochastic frontier approach over a panel of Italian manufacturing firms," MPRA Paper 51071, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  119. Marcello M. Estevão, 2007. "Structural Changes And Labor Productivity Slowdown In The Euro Area," Ensayos sobre Política Económica, Banco de la Republica de Colombia, vol. 25(53), pages 336-367, Enero.
  120. Nicholas Crafts, 2003. "Steam as a general purpose technology: a growth accounting perspective," Economic History Working Papers 22354, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Economic History.
  121. Yi, Myung Hoon & Choi, Changkyu, 2005. "The effect of the Internet on inflation: Panel data evidence," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 27(7), pages 885-889, October.
  122. Castellani, Davide & Piva, Mariacristina & Schubert, Torben & Vivarelli, Marco, 2016. "R&D and Productivity in the US and the EU: Sectoral Specificities and Differences in the Crisis," Papers in Innovation Studies 2016/15, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
  123. Barbara K Atrostic & John Gates & Ron Jarmin, 2000. "Measuring the Electronic Economy: Current Status and Next Steps," Working Papers 00-10, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  124. Kieran Mc Morrow & Werner Roeger, 2001. "Potential Output: Measurement Methods, "New" Economy Influences and Scenarios for 2001-2010 - A comparison of the EU-15 and the US," European Economy - Economic Papers 2008 - 2015 150, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
  125. Dürnecker, Georg, 2011. "Technology Adoption, Turbulence and the Dynamics of Unemployment," Working Papers 11-2, University of Mannheim, Department of Economics.
  126. Gern, Klaus-Jürgen & Gottschalk, Jan & Kamps, Christophe & Sander, Birgit & Scheide, Joachim & Strauß, Hubert, 2000. "Weltwirtschaft unter Volldampf," Open Access Publications from Kiel Institute for the World Economy 2499, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
  127. McAdam, Peter & Willman, Alpo, 2013. "Medium Run Redux," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 17(04), pages 695-727, June.
  128. James Feyrer, 2009. "The US Productivity Slowdown, the Baby Boom, and Management Quality," NBER Working Papers 15474, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  129. Jalava, Jukka & Pohjola, Matti, 2008. "The roles of electricity and ICT in economic growth: Case Finland," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 270-287, July.
  130. David M. Byrne & Stephen D. Oliner & Daniel E. Sichel, 2013. "Is the Information Technology Revolution Over?," International Productivity Monitor, Centre for the Study of Living Standards, vol. 25, pages 20-36, Spring.
  131. Ewa, Lechman, 2010. "Concentration in ICTs sector – cross country analysis," MPRA Paper 37488, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  132. Antolin-Diaz, Juan & Drechsel, Thomas & Petrella, Ivan, 2016. "Tracking the slowdown in long-run GDP growth," Bank of England working papers 587, Bank of England.
  133. Barry P. Bosworth & Jack E. Triplett, 2007. "Services Productivity in the United States: Griliches's Services Volume Revisited," NBER Chapters, in: Hard-to-Measure Goods and Services: Essays in Honor of Zvi Griliches, pages 413-447 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  134. Edquist, Harald & Henrekson, Magnus, 2016. "Do R&D and ICT Affect Total Factor Productivity Growth Differently?," Working Paper Series 1108, Research Institute of Industrial Economics, revised 07 Jun 2016.
  135. Coen, Robert M. & Hickman, Bert G., 2006. "An econometric model of potential output, productivity growth, and resource utilization," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 645-664, December.
  136. Petr Polák, 2014. "The productivity paradox: A Meta-analysis," Working Papers IES 2014/28, Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Economic Studies, revised Sep 2014.
  137. Gundlach, Erich, 2001. "Interpreting productivity growth in the new economy: Some agnostic notes," Kiel Working Papers 1020, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
  138. Dale W. Jorgenson, 2006. "Information Technology and the G7 Economies," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 97(5), pages 189-215.
  139. Eric Shih & Kenneth L. Kraemer & Jason Dedrick, 2007. "Research Note: Determinants of Country-Level Investment in Information Technology," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 53(3), pages 521-528, March.
  140. Ashford, Robert & Kantarelis, Demetri, 2008. "Capital democratization," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 1624-1635, August.
  141. Stefanie Haller & Iulia Siedschlag, 2011. "Determinants of ICT adoption: evidence from firm-level data," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(26), pages 3775-3788.
  142. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:6:y:2007:i:27:p:1-7 is not listed on IDEAS
  143. Elgin, Ceyhun, 2013. "Internet usage and the shadow economy: Evidence from panel data," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 111-121.
  144. Md Shahiduzzaman & Allan Layton & Khorshed Alam, 2015. "On the contribution of information and communication technology to productivity growth in Australia," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 48(3), pages 281-304, November.
  145. repec:use:tkiwps:2222 is not listed on IDEAS
  146. Grüner, Hans Peter, 2009. "Information technology: Efficient restructuring and the productivity puzzle," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 72(3), pages 916-929, December.
  147. Goldfarb, Avi, 2006. "The (teaching) role of universities in the diffusion of the Internet," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 203-225, March.
  148. John M. Roberts, 2001. "Estimates of the productivity trend using time-varying parameter techniques," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2001-08, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  149. García-Muñiz, Ana Salomé & Vicente, María Rosalía, 2014. "ICT technologies in Europe: A study of technological diffusion and economic growth under network theory," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 360-370.
  150. Marianne Bitler, 2001. "Small business and computers: adoption and performance," Working Paper Series 2001-15, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  151. Choi, Changkyu & Hoon Yi, Myung, 2009. "The effect of the Internet on economic growth: Evidence from cross-country panel data," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 105(1), pages 39-41, October.
  152. Liu, Ting-Kun & Chen, Jong-Rong & Huang, Cliff C.J. & Yang, Chih-Hai, 2013. "E-commerce, R&D, and productivity: Firm-level evidence from Taiwan," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 272-283.
  153. Shahiduzzaman, Md. & Alam, Khorshed, 2014. "Information technology and its changing roles to economic growth and productivity in Australia," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 125-135.
  154. Diana Mihaela Apostol & Cristina Balaceanu, 2011. "Growth and Technology: The New Economy in the 2000's CEE Countries and Romania," International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences, Human Resource Management Academic Research Society, International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences, vol. 1(2), pages 46-55, December.
  155. Elsadig Ahmed & Rahim Ridzuan, 2013. "The Impact of ICT on East Asian Economic Growth: Panel Estimation Approach," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 4(4), pages 540-555, December.
  156. Werner Roeger, 2001. "The contribution of information and communication technologies to growth in Europe and the US: A macroeconomic analysis," European Economy - Economic Papers 2008 - 2015 147, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
  157. Paola Caselli & Francesco Patern�, 2001. "ICT accumulation and productivity growth in the United States: an analysis based on industry data," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 419, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  158. repec:aei:rpaper:37301 is not listed on IDEAS
  159. Antonopoulos, Christos & Sakellaris, Plutarchos, 2009. "The contribution of Information and Communication Technology investments to Greek economic growth: An analytical growth accounting framework," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 171-191, August.
  160. Mariano Sana, 2010. "Immigrants and natives in U.S. science and engineering occupations, 1994–2006," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 47(3), pages 801-820, August.
  161. Crafts, Nicholas & Mills, Terence C., 2004. "Was 19th century British growth steam-powered?: the climacteric revisited," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 156-171, April.
  162. Nicholas Oulton, 2004. "Investment-specific technological change and growth accounting," Bank of England working papers 213, Bank of England.
  163. Benati, Luca, 2007. "Drift and breaks in labor productivity," Working Paper Series 0718, European Central Bank.
  164. Bakhshi, Hasan & Larsen, Jens, 2005. "ICT-specific technological progress in the United Kingdom," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 648-669, December.
  165. Graeme Davis & Jyoti Rahman, 2006. "Perspectives on Australia's productivity prospects," Treasury Working Papers 2006-04, The Treasury, Australian Government, revised Sep 2006.
  166. Su, Dan & Yao, Yang, 2016. "Manufacturing as the Key Engine of Economic Growth for Middle-Income Economies," ADBI Working Papers 573, Asian Development Bank Institute.
  167. Barbara M. Fraumeni, 2012. "Human Capital Productivity: A New Concept for Productivity Analysis," International Productivity Monitor, Centre for the Study of Living Standards, vol. 24, pages 20-26, Fall.
  168. B.K. Atrostic & Kazuyuki Motohashi & Sang Nguyen, 2008. "Computer Network Use and Firms' Productivity Performance: The United States vs. Japan," Working Papers 08-30, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  169. Guido Schryen, 2010. "Preserving Knowledge on IS Business Value," Business & Information Systems Engineering- The International Journal of WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK, Springer;Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V. (GI), vol. 2(4), pages 233-244, August.
  170. Cunado, J. & Gil-Alana, L.A. & de Gracia, F. Perez, 2005. "A test for rational bubbles in the NASDAQ stock index: A fractionally integrated approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(10), pages 2633-2654, October.
  171. Urban Jermann & Vincenzo Quadrini, 2002. "Stock Market Boom and the Productivity Gains of the 1990s," NBER Working Papers 9034, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  172. Gust, Christopher & Marquez, Jaime, 2004. "International comparisons of productivity growth: the role of information technology and regulatory practices," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 33-58, February.
  173. Bart Hobijn, 2001. "Is equipment price deflation a statistical artifact?," Staff Reports 139, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  174. Nicholas Crafts, 2003. "Quantifying the contribution of technological change to economic growth in different eras: a review of the evidence," Economic History Working Papers 22350, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Economic History.
  175. Godin, Benoit, 2004. "The New Economy: what the concept owes to the OECD," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 679-690, July.
  176. L. Marattin & S. Salotti, 2009. "A Note on Productivity and Per Capita GDP Growth: the Role of the Forgotten Factors," Working Papers 667, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
  177. Vu, Khuong M., 2013. "Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Singapore’s economic growth," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 284-300.
  178. Ignacio Hernando & Soledad Núñez, 2002. "The contribution of ICT to economic activity: a growth accounting exercise with Spanish firm-level data," Working Papers 0203, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
  179. Jorgenson, Dale W. & Ho, Mun S. & Stiroh, Kevin J., 2003. "Lessons from the US growth resurgence," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 453-470, July.
  180. Evgeniya Yushkova, 2014. "Impact of ICT on trade in different technology groups: analysis and implications," International Economics and Economic Policy, Springer, vol. 11(1), pages 165-177, February.
  181. Dale W. Jorgenson, 2005. "Capital Accumulation, Productivity and Growth," Rivista di Politica Economica, SIPI Spa, vol. 95(1), pages 25-56, January-F.
  182. repec:spr:compst:v:65:y:2007:i:3:p:483-497 is not listed on IDEAS
  183. Chou, Yen-Chun & Hao-Chun Chuang, Howard & Shao, Benjamin B.M., 2014. "The impacts of information technology on total factor productivity: A look at externalities and innovations," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 158(C), pages 290-299.
  184. Vinoj Abraham & K.J. Joseph, 2008. "Information Technology and Productivity: Evidence From India's Manufacturing Sector," Working Papers id:1418, eSocialSciences.
  185. Daoqin TONG & Sandy DALL’ERBA, 2008. "Spatial Disparities In The Chinese Ict Sector: A Regional Analysis," Region et Developpement, Region et Developpement, LEAD, Universite du Sud - Toulon Var, vol. 28, pages 111-129.
  186. Gros, Daniel & Alcidi, Cinzia, 2014. "The Global Economy in 2030: Trends and Strategies for Europe," CEPS Papers 9142, Centre for European Policy Studies.
  187. Nicholas Oulton, 2004. "A Statistical Framework for the Analysis of Productivity and Sustainable Development," CEP Discussion Papers dp0629, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  188. Fabrizio Carmignani & Thomas Mandeville, . "Never been industrialized: a tale of African structural change," MRG Discussion Paper Series 3710, School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia.
  189. Ronald Kumar & Madhukar Singh, 2014. "Role of health expenditure and ICT in a small island economy: a study of Fiji," Quality & Quantity- International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 48(4), pages 2295-2311, July.
  190. Gu, Wulong & Gera, Surendra, 2004. "The Effect of Organizational Innovation and Information Technology on Firm Performance," The Canadian Economy in Transition 2004007e, Statistics Canada, Economic Analysis.
  191. Burak Karagöl & Erkan Erdil, 2012. "Macroeconomic Effects of Information and Communication Technologies in Turkey and Other OECD Member Countries," STPS Working Papers 1205, STPS - Science and Technology Policy Studies Center, Middle East Technical University, revised May 2012.
  192. Haukioja, Teemu & Hahl, Jarmo, 2001. "The Emergence of the New Economy, and its Challenge to Financial Intermediation and Banking," Discussion Papers 772, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
  193. Jean-Paul Fitoussi & Jean-Luc Gaffard, 2001. "Asset Valuation, Liquidity Issues, and Growth Regimes. Financial Markets, the New Economy and Growth, 13th Villa Mondragone International Economic Seminar, CEIS University of Rome ‘Tor Vergata’, June ," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/5573, Sciences Po.
  194. Antolin-Diaz, Juan & Drechsel, Thomas & Petrella, Ivan, 2014. "Following the Trend: Tracking GDP when Long-Run Growth is Uncertain," CEPR Discussion Papers 10272, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  195. Aekapol Chongvilaivan, 2008. "Learning by Exporting and High-tech Capital Deepening in Singapore Manufacturing Industries, 1974-2006," SCAPE Policy Research Working Paper Series 0804, National University of Singapore, Department of Economics, SCAPE.
  196. Hyunbae Chun & Jung-Wook Kim & Randall Morck & Bernard Yeung, 2007. "Creative Destruction and Firm-Specific Performance Heterogeneity," NBER Working Papers 13011, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  197. Yu. Yatsenko & N. Hritonenko, 2007. "Network economics and optimal replacement of age-structured IT capital," Mathematical Methods of Operations Research, Springer;Gesellschaft für Operations Research (GOR);Nederlands Genootschap voor Besliskunde (NGB), vol. 65(3), pages 483-497, June.
  198. Dimelis, Sophia P. & Papaioannou, Sotiris K., 2011. "ICT growth effects at the industry level: A comparison between the US and the EU," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 37-50, March.
  199. Gorodnichenko, Yuriy & Shapiro, Matthew D., 2007. "Monetary policy when potential output is uncertain: Understanding the growth gamble of the 1990s," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(4), pages 1132-1162, May.
  200. Venus Khim-Sen Liew & Wing-Keung Wong & Zhuo Qiao, 2007. "Does the US IT stock market dominate other IT stock markets: Evidence from multivariate GARCH model," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 6(27), pages 1-7.
  201. Edquist, Harald & Henrekson, Magnus, 2015. "Swedish Lessons: How Important are ICT and R&D to Economic Growth?," Working Paper Series 1073, Research Institute of Industrial Economics, revised 25 Aug 2015.
  202. Henrekson, Magnus & Edquist, Harald, 2006. "Technological Breakthroughs and Productivity Growth," Working Paper Series 665, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  203. Palazuelos, Enrique & Fernández, Rafael, 2009. "Demand, employment, and labour productivity in the European economies," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 1-15, March.
  204. Lawrence Jin & Jang C. Jin, 2014. "Internet Education and Economic Growth: Evidence from Cross-Country Regressions," Economies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 2(1), pages 78, March.
  205. Knick Harley, 2003. "Growth Theory and Industrial Revolutions in Britain and America," Discussion Papers 03-32, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
  206. Schade, Christian & Köllinger, Philipp, 2004. "Adoption of e-business: patterns and consequences of network externalities," Papers 2004,05, Humboldt-Universität Berlin, Center for Applied Statistics and Economics (CASE).
  207. Bruno Caprettini, 2008. "Finance and the Diffusion of Digital Technologies," Rivista di Politica Economica, SIPI Spa, vol. 98(6), pages 79-122, November-.
  208. Hoisl, Karin & Stelzer, Tobias & Biala, Stefanie, 2015. "Forecasting technological discontinuities in the ICT industry," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 522-532.
  209. Pradhan, Rudra P. & Arvin, Mak B. & Norman, Neville R. & Bele, Samadhan K., 2014. "Economic growth and the development of telecommunications infrastructure in the G-20 countries: A panel-VAR approach," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(7), pages 634-649.
  210. McAdam, Peter & Willman, Alpo, 2008. "Medium run redux: technical change, factor shares and frictions in the euro area," Working Paper Series 0915, European Central Bank.
  211. Gianfranco E. Atzeni & Oliviero A. Carboni, 2006. "The Effects of Subsidies on Investment: an Empirical Evaluation on ICT in Italy," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 97(5), pages 279-302.
  212. Antonelli, Cristiano & Barbiellini Amidei, Federico, 2009. "Knowledge, innovation and localised technological change in Italy, 1950-1990," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis LEI & BRICK - Laboratory of Economics of Innovation "Franco Momigliano", Bureau of Research in Innovation, Complexity and Knowledge, Collegio 200913, University of Turin.
  213. Niebel, Thomas, 2014. "ICT and economic growth: Comparing developing, emerging and developed countries," ZEW Discussion Papers 14-117, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  214. Shao, Benjamin B.M. & Lin, Winston T., 2016. "Assessing output performance of information technology service industries: Productivity, innovation and catch-up," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 172(C), pages 43-53.
  215. Cornwall, John & Cornwall, Wendy, 2002. "A demand and supply analysis of productivity growth," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 203-229, June.
  216. Ficawoyi Donou-Adonsou & Sokchea Lim & Samuel A. Mathey, 2016. "Technological Progress and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Telecommunications Infrastructure," International Advances in Economic Research, International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 22(1), pages 65-75, February.
  217. Hung, Juann & Salomon, Matt & Sowerby, Stacia, 2004. "International trade and US productivity," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 1-25, April.
  218. Castiglione, Concetta & Infante, Davide, 2014. "ICTs and time-span in technical efficiency gains. A stochastic frontier approach over a panel of Italian manufacturing firms," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 55-65.
  219. Shahiduzzaman, Md. & Alam, Khorshed, 2014. "The long-run impact of Information and Communication Technology on economic output: The case of Australia," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(7), pages 623-633.
  220. Susan N. Houseman & Christopher J. Kurz & Paul Lengermann & Benjamin R. Mandel, 2010. "Offshoring bias in U.S. manufacturing: implications for productivity and value added," International Finance Discussion Papers 1007, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  221. Oliner, Stephen D. & Sichel, Daniel E., 2005. "Les technologies de l’information et la productivité : situation actuelle et perspectives d’avenir," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 81(1), pages 339-400, Mars-Juin.
  222. Chun, Hyunbae & Kim, Jung-Wook & Lee, Jason, 2015. "How does information technology improve aggregate productivity? A new channel of productivity dispersion and reallocation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(5), pages 999-1016.
This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.