IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login

Citations for "Forecasting using a large number of predictors: Is Bayesian shrinkage a valid alternative to principal components?"

by De Mol, Christine & Giannone, Domenico & Reichlin, Lucrezia

For a complete description of this item, click here. For a RSS feed for citations of this item, click here.
as in new window

  1. Groen, J.J.J. & Paap, R., 2009. "Real-time inflation forecasting in a changing world," Econometric Institute Research Papers EI 2009-19, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), Econometric Institute.
  2. Miguel A. G. Belmonte & Gary Koop & Dimitris Korobilis, 2011. "Hierarchical Shrinkage in Time-Varying Parameter Models," Working Paper Series 35_11, The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis.
  3. Conflitti, Cristina & De Mol, Christine & Giannone, Domenico, 2015. "Optimal combination of survey forecasts," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 1096-1103.
  4. Sandra Eickmeier & Tim Ng, 2009. "Forecasting national activity using lots of international predictors: an application to New Zealand," Reserve Bank of New Zealand Discussion Paper Series DP2009/04, Reserve Bank of New Zealand.
  5. Fady Barsoum, 2015. "Point and Density Forecasts Using an Unrestricted Mixed-Frequency VAR Model," Working Paper Series of the Department of Economics, University of Konstanz 2015-19, Department of Economics, University of Konstanz.
  6. Carrera, Cesar & Ledesma, Alan, 2015. "Proyección de la inflación agregada con modelos de vectores autorregresivos bayesianos," Working Papers 2015-003, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú.
  7. Alexander Chudik & Hashem Pesaran, 2014. "Theory and Practice of GVAR Modeling," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 1408, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  8. Giannone, Domenico & Lenza, Michele & Reichlin, Lucrezia, 2012. "Money, credit, monetary policy and the business cycle in the euro area," CEPR Discussion Papers 8944, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  9. Canova, Fabio & Ciccarelli, Matteo, 2013. "Panel vector autoregressive models: a survey," Working Paper Series 1507, European Central Bank.
  10. Rangan Gupta & Marius Jurgilas & Alain Kabundi & Stephen M. Miller, 2011. "Monetary policy and housing sector dynamics in a large-scale Bayesian vector autoregressive model," International Journal of Strategic Property Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(1), pages 1-20, August.
  11. Li, Jiahan & Chen, Weiye, 2014. "Forecasting macroeconomic time series: LASSO-based approaches and their forecast combinations with dynamic factor models," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 996-1015.
  12. Pirschel, Inske & Wolters, Maik, 2014. "Forecasting German key macroeconomic variables using large dataset methods," Annual Conference 2014 (Hamburg): Evidence-based Economic Policy 100587, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
  13. Stelios Bekiros & Alessia Paccagnini, 2013. "On the predictability of time-varying VAR and DSGE models," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 635-664, August.
  14. Jennifer Castle & David Hendry, 2013. "Forecasting and Nowcasting Macroeconomic Variables: A Methodological Overview," Economics Series Working Papers 674, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  15. Carriero, Andrea & Kapetanios, George & Marcellino, Massimiliano, 2008. "Forecasting Exchange Rates with a Large Bayesian VAR," CEPR Discussion Papers 7008, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  16. Tim Oliver Berg & Steffen Henzel, 2014. "Point and Density Forecasts for the Euro Area Using Bayesian VARs," CESifo Working Paper Series 4711, CESifo Group Munich.
  17. Raffaella Giacomini, 2014. "Economic theory and forecasting: lessons from the literature," CeMMAP working papers CWP41/14, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  18. Chris Bloor & Troy Matheson, 2009. "Real-time conditional forecasts with Bayesian VARs: An application to New Zealand," Reserve Bank of New Zealand Discussion Paper Series DP2009/02, Reserve Bank of New Zealand.
  19. Gary Koop, 2012. "Using VARs and TVP-VARs with Many Macroeconomic Variables," Central European Journal of Economic Modelling and Econometrics, CEJEME, vol. 4(3), pages 143-167, September.
  20. Domenico Giannone & Michele Lenza & Lucrezia Reichlin, 2008. "Explaining The Great Moderation: It Is Not The Shocks," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 6(2-3), pages 621-633, 04-05.
  21. Chudik, Alexander & Pesaran, M. Hashem, 2011. "Infinite-dimensional VARs and factor models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 163(1), pages 4-22, July.
  22. Raffaella Giacomini, 2012. "Incorporating theoretical restrictions into forecasting by projection methods," 2012 Meeting Papers 548, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  23. Olfa Kaabia & Ilyes Abid & Khaled Guesmi, 2012. "Does Bayesian Shrinkage Help to Better Reflect What Happened during the Subprime Crisis?," EconomiX Working Papers 2012-46, University of Paris West - Nanterre la Défense, EconomiX.
  24. Peter Exterkate & Patrick J.F. Groenen & Christiaan Heij & Dick van Dijk, 2011. "Nonlinear Forecasting with Many Predictors using Kernel Ridge Regression," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 11-007/4, Tinbergen Institute.
  25. Domenico Giannone & Michèle Lenza & Giorgio E. Primiceri, 2012. "Prior Selection for Vector Autoregressions," Working Papers ECARES ECARES 2012-002, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  26. Marta Bańbura, 2008. "Large Bayesian VARs," 2008 Meeting Papers 334, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  27. Kuzin, Vladimir & Marcellino, Massimiliano & Schumacher, Christian, 2009. "Pooling versus model selection for nowcasting with many predictors: An application to German GDP," CEPR Discussion Papers 7197, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  28. Deryugina , Elena & Ponomarenko , Alexey, 2014. "A large Bayesian vector autoregression model for Russia," BOFIT Discussion Papers 22/2014, Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition.
  29. Auer, Simone, 2014. "Monetary policy shocks and foreign investment income: evidence from a large Bayesian VAR," Globalization and Monetary Policy Institute Working Paper 170, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
  30. Groen, Jan J. J. & Kapetanios, George, 2008. "Revisiting useful approaches to data-rich macroeconomic forecasting," Staff Reports 327, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, revised 01 Oct 2015.
  31. Gupta, Rangan & Kabundi, Alain & Miller, Stephen M., 2011. "Forecasting the US real house price index: Structural and non-structural models with and without fundamentals," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 2013-2021, July.
  32. Sydney C. Ludvigson & Serena Ng, 2009. "A Factor Analysis of Bond Risk Premia," NBER Working Papers 15188, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  33. Bańbura, Marta & Giannone, Domenico & Modugno, Michele & Reichlin, Lucrezia, 2013. "Now-Casting and the Real-Time Data Flow," Handbook of Economic Forecasting, Elsevier.
  34. Matteo Barigozzi & Christian Brownlees, 2013. "Nets: Network Estimation for Time Series," Working Papers 723, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
  35. KOROBILIS, Dimitris, 2011. "Hierarchical shrinkage priors for dynamic regressions with many predictors," CORE Discussion Papers 2011021, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  36. Nikolaus Hautsch & Fuyu Yang, 2014. "Bayesian Stochastic Search for the Best Predictors: Nowcasting GDP Growth," University of East Anglia Applied and Financial Economics Working Paper Series 056, School of Economics, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK..
  37. Goodness C. Aye & Rangan Gupta, 2013. "Forecasting Real House Price of the U.S.: An Analysis Covering 1890 to 2012," Working Papers 201362, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
  38. Guy Tchuente & Marine Carrasco, 2013. "Efficient estimation with many weak instruments using regularization techniques," CIRANO Working Papers 2013s-21, CIRANO.
  39. Jiahan Li & Ilias Tsiakas & Wei Wang, 2014. "Predicting Exchange Rates Out of Sample: Can Economic Fundamentals Beat the Random Walk?," Working Paper Series 05_14, The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis.
  40. Andrea Carriero & George Kapetanios & Massimiliano Marcellino, 2009. "Forecasting Large Datasets with Bayesian Reduced Rank Multivariate Models," Economics Working Papers ECO2009/31, European University Institute.
  41. Massimiliano Marcellino & Christian Schumacher, 2008. "Factor-MIDAS for Now- and Forecasting with Ragged-Edge Data: A Model Comparison for German GDP1," Working Papers 333, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
  42. Hallin, Marc & Lippi, Marco, 2013. "Factor models in high-dimensional time series—A time-domain approach," Stochastic Processes and their Applications, Elsevier, vol. 123(7), pages 2678-2695.
  43. Gefang, Deborah, 2014. "Bayesian doubly adaptive elastic-net Lasso for VAR shrinkage," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 1-11.
  44. Raffaella Giacomini & Barbara Rossi, 2014. "Forecasting in nonstationary environments: What works and what doesn't in reduced-form and structural models," Economics Working Papers 1476, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  45. Gustavo Fruet Dias & George Kapetanios, 2014. "Forecasting Medium and Large Datasets with Vector Autoregressive Moving Average (VARMA) Models," CREATES Research Papers 2014-37, School of Economics and Management, University of Aarhus.
  46. Andrea Carriero & Todd E. Clark & Massimiliano Marcellino, 2012. "Real-time nowcasting with a Bayesian mixed frequency model with stochastic volatility," Working Paper 1227, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  47. Gianluca Cubadda & Barbara Guardabascio, 2010. "A Medium-N Approach to Macroeconomic Forecasting," CEIS Research Paper 176, Tor Vergata University, CEIS, revised 09 Dec 2010.
  48. Kascha, Christian & Trenkler, Carsten, 2015. "Forecasting VARs, model selection, and shrinkage," Working Papers 15-07, University of Mannheim, Department of Economics.
  49. Giannone, Domenico & Lenza, Michele & Pill, Huw & Reichlin, Lucrezia, 2012. "The ECB and the Interbank Market," CEPR Discussion Papers 8844, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  50. Sandra Stankiewicz, 2015. "Forecasting Euro Area Macroeconomic Variables with Bayesian Adaptive Elastic Net," Working Paper Series of the Department of Economics, University of Konstanz 2015-12, Department of Economics, University of Konstanz.
  51. Petrevski, Goran & Exterkate, Peter & Tevdovski, Dragan & Bogoev, Jane, 2015. "The transmission of foreign shocks to South Eastern European economies: A Bayesian VAR approach," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 39(4), pages 632-643.
  52. Martha Banbura & Domenico Giannone & Michèle Lenza, 2014. "Conditional Forecasts and Scenario Analysis with Vector Autoregressions for Large Cross-Sections," Working Papers ECARES ECARES 2014-15, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  53. Helmut Lütkepohl, 2014. "Structural Vector Autoregressive Analysis in a Data Rich Environment: A Survey," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1351, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  54. Marta Banbura & Domenico Giannone & Lucrezia Reichlin, 2010. "Large Bayesian vector auto regressions," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 25(1), pages 71-92.
  55. C. Marsilli, 2014. "Variable Selection in Predictive MIDAS Models," Working papers 520, Banque de France.
  56. Frank Schorfheide & Dongho Song, 2012. "Real-time forecasting with a mixed-frequency VAR," Working Papers 701, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  57. Fady Barsoum, 2013. "The Effects of Monetary Policy Shocks on a Panel of Stock Market Volatilities: A Factor-Augmented Bayesian VAR Approach," Working Paper Series of the Department of Economics, University of Konstanz 2013-15, Department of Economics, University of Konstanz.
  58. Altavilla, Carlo & Giannone, Domenico & Lenza, Michele, 2014. "The Financial and Macroeconomic Effects of OMT Announcements," CEPR Discussion Papers 10025, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  59. Marco Lombardi & Chiara Osbat & Bernd Schnatz, 2012. "Global commodity cycles and linkages: a FAVAR approach," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 43(2), pages 651-670, October.
  60. Marek Rusnak, 2013. "Nowcasting Czech GDP in Real Time," Working Papers 2013/06, Czech National Bank, Research Department.
  61. Bernoth, Kerstin & Pick, Andreas, 2011. "Forecasting the fragility of the banking and insurance sectors," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 807-818, April.
  62. Altavilla, Carlo & Darracq Pariès, Matthieu & Nicoletti, Giulio, 2015. "Loan supply, credit markets and the euro area financial crisis," Working Paper Series 1861, European Central Bank.
  63. Berg, Tim Oliver, 2015. "Multivariate Forecasting with BVARs and DSGE Models," MPRA Paper 62405, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  64. A. Girardi & R. Golinelli & C. Pappalardo, 2014. "The Role of Indicator Selection in Nowcasting Euro Area GDP in Pseudo Real Time," Working Papers wp919, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
  65. Giannone, Domenico & Lenza, Michele & Momferatou, Daphne & Onorante, Luca, 2014. "Short-term inflation projections: A Bayesian vector autoregressive approach," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 635-644.
  66. Roberto Casarin & Daniel Felix Ahelegbey & Monica Billio, 2014. "Sparse Graphical Vector Autoregression: A Bayesian Approach," Working Papers 2014:29, Department of Economics, University of Venice "Ca' Foscari".
  67. Domenico Giannone & Michèle Lenza & Huw Pill & Lucrezia Reichlin, 2010. "Non‐Standard Monetary Policy Measures," Working Papers ECARES ECARES 2010-040, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  68. Fornaro, Paolo, 2015. "Forecasting U.S. Recessions with a Large Set of Predictors," MPRA Paper 62973, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  69. Henzel, Steffen R. & Mayr, Johannes, 2013. "The mechanics of VAR forecast pooling—A DSGE model based Monte Carlo study," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 1-24.
  70. Jarociński, Marek, 2010. "Imposing parsimony in cross-country growth regressions," Working Paper Series 1234, European Central Bank.
  71. Luigi Paciello, 2009. "Does Inflation Adjust Faster to Aggregate Technology Shocks than to Monetary Policy Shocks?," EIEF Working Papers Series 0917, Einaudi Institute for Economics and Finance (EIEF), revised Apr 2011.
  72. Alessandro Giovannelli & Tommaso Proietti, 2015. "On the Selection of Common Factors for Macroeconomic Forecasting," CEIS Research Paper 332, Tor Vergata University, CEIS, revised 12 Mar 2015.
  73. Eliana González, . "Forecasting With Many Predictors. An Empirical Comparison," Borradores de Economia 643, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  74. Ricco, Giovanni & Ellahie, Atif, 2012. "Government Spending Reloaded: Fundamentalness and Heterogeneity in Fiscal SVARs," MPRA Paper 42105, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  75. Onatski, Alexei, 2015. "Asymptotic analysis of the squared estimation error in misspecified factor models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 186(2), pages 388-406.
  76. Carriero, Andrea & Kapetanios, George & Marcellino, Massimiliano, 2012. "Forecasting government bond yields with large Bayesian vector autoregressions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 2026-2047.
  77. Michele Lenza & Huw Pill & Lucrezia Reichlin, 2010. "Monetary policy in exceptional times," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 25, pages 295-339, 04.
  78. Jana Eklund & George Kapetanios, 2008. "A Review of Forecasting Techniques for Large Data Sets," National Institute Economic Review, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, vol. 203(1), pages 109-115, January.
  79. Ricco, Giovanni, 2015. "A new identification of fiscal shocks based on the information flow," Working Paper Series 1813, European Central Bank.
  80. Mayr, Johannes, 2010. "Forecasting Macroeconomic Aggregates," Munich Dissertations in Economics 11140, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  81. Liebermann, Joelle, 2012. "Real-time forecasting in a data-rich environment," Research Technical Papers 07/RT/12, Central Bank of Ireland.
  82. Brodie, Joshua & Daubechies, Ingrid & De Mol, Christine & Giannone, Domenico, 2007. "Sparse and Stable Markowitz Portfolios," CEPR Discussion Papers 6474, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  83. Scharnagl, Michael & Schumacher, Christian, 2007. "Reconsidering the role of monetary indicators for euro area inflation from a Bayesian perspective using group inclusion probabilities," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2007,09, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  84. Rachida Ouysse, 2011. "Comparison of Bayesian moving Average and Principal Component Forecast for Large Dimensional Factor Models," Discussion Papers 2012-03, School of Economics, The University of New South Wales.
  85. Robinson Durán & Evelyn Garrido & Carolina Godoy & Juan de Dios Tena, 2012. "Predicción de la inflación en México con modelos desagregados por componente," Estudios Económicos, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Económicos, vol. 27(1), pages 133-167.
  86. Castle, Jennifer L. & Clements, Michael P. & Hendry, David F., 2013. "Forecasting by factors, by variables, by both or neither?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 177(2), pages 305-319.
  87. Rangan Gupta, 2012. "Forecasting House Prices for the Four Census Regions and the Aggregate US Economy: The Role of a Data-Rich Environment," Working Papers 201214, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
  88. Jushan Bai & Serena Ng, 2009. "Boosting diffusion indices," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(4), pages 607-629.
  89. Ricco, Giovanni & Callegari, Giovanni & Cimadomo, Jacopo, 2014. "Signals from the Government: Policy Uncertainty and the Transmission of Fiscal Shocks," MPRA Paper 56136, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  90. Andrea Carriero & George Kapetanios & Massimiliano Marcellino, 2010. "Forecasting Government Bond Yields with Large Bayesian VARs," Working Papers 662, Queen Mary University of London, School of Economics and Finance.
  91. Massimiliano Marcellino & Christian Schumacher, 2008. "Factor-MIDAS for Now- and Forecasting with Ragged-Edge Data: A Model Comparison for German GDP," Economics Working Papers ECO2008/16, European University Institute.
  92. James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 2012. "Generalized Shrinkage Methods for Forecasting Using Many Predictors," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(4), pages 481-493, June.
  93. Petre Caraiani, 2014. "Do money and financial variables help forecasting output in emerging European Economies?," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 46(2), pages 743-763, March.
  94. Giacomini, Raffaella, 2014. "Economic theory and forecasting: lessons from the literature," CEPR Discussion Papers 10201, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  95. Matteo Barigozzi & Marc Hallin, 2015. "Networks, Dynamic Factors, and the Volatility Analysis of High-Dimensional Financial Series," Papers 1510.05118, arXiv.org.
  96. Kelly, Bryan & Pruitt, Seth, 2015. "The three-pass regression filter: A new approach to forecasting using many predictors," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 186(2), pages 294-316.
  97. Julieta Fuentes & Pilar Poncela & Julio Rodríguez, 2012. "Sparse partial least squares in time series for macroeconomic forecasting," Statistics and Econometrics Working Papers ws122216, Universidad Carlos III, Departamento de Estadística y Econometría.
  98. Luciani, Matteo, 2014. "Forecasting with approximate dynamic factor models: The role of non-pervasive shocks," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 20-29.
  99. Adina Popescu & Alina Carare, 2011. "Monetary Policy and Risk-Premium Shocks in Hungary: Results from a Large Bayesian VAR," IMF Working Papers 11/259, International Monetary Fund.
  100. Bai, Jushan & Ng, Serena, 2008. "Forecasting economic time series using targeted predictors," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 146(2), pages 304-317, October.
  101. Eliana González, 2011. "Forecasting With Many Predictors. An Empirical Comparison," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 007996, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  102. Lucrezia Reichlin, 2009. "Comment on "How Has the Euro Changed the Monetary Transmission Mechanism?"," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2008, Volume 23, pages 127-139 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  103. Dimitris P. Louzis, 2014. "Macroeconomic and credit forecasts in a small economy during crisis: A large Bayesian VAR approach," Working Papers 184, Bank of Greece.
  104. Chris Bloor & Troy Matheson, 2010. "Analysing shock transmission in a data-rich environment: a large BVAR for New Zealand," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 39(2), pages 537-558, October.
  105. Carlo Altavilla & Domenico Giannone & Michele Lenza, 2014. "The Financial and Macroeconomic Effects of the OMT Announcements," CSEF Working Papers 352, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
  106. Helmut Lütkepohl, 2012. "Fundamental Problems with Nonfundamental Shocks," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1230, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  107. Ching Wai (Jeremy) Chiu & Bjørn Eraker & Andrew T. Foerster & Tae Bong Kim & Hernán D. Seoane, 2011. "Estimating VAR's sampled at mixed or irregular spaced frequencies : a Bayesian approach," Research Working Paper RWP 11-11, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
  108. Haroon Mumtaz & Nitin Kumar, 2012. "An application of data-rich environment for policy analysis of the Indian economy," Joint Research Papers 2, Centre for Central Banking Studies, Bank of England.
  109. Alexander Chudik & Valerie Grossman & M. Hashem Pesaran, 2014. "A Multi-Country Approach to Forecasting Output Growth Using PMIs," CESifo Working Paper Series 5100, CESifo Group Munich.
  110. David de Antonio Liedo & Elena Fernández Muñoz, 2010. "Nowcasting Spanish GDP growth in real time: "One and a half months earlier"," Banco de Espa�a Working Papers 1037, Banco de Espa�a.
  111. Rangan Gupta & Mampho P. Modise & Josine Uwilingiye, 2011. "Out-of-Sample Equity Premium Predictability in South Africa: Evidence from a Large Number of Predictors," Working Papers 201122, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
  112. Onatski, Alexei, 2012. "Asymptotics of the principal components estimator of large factor models with weakly influential factors," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 168(2), pages 244-258.
This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.