IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/not/notgts/18-04.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Sequential testing for structural stability in approximate factor models

Author

Listed:
  • Matteo Barigozzi
  • Lorenzo Trapani

Abstract

We develop an on-line monitoring procedure to detect a change in a large approximate factor model. Our statistics are based on a well-known property of the (r + 1)-th eigenvalue of the sample covariance matrix of the data (having defined r as the number of common factors): whilst under the null the (r + 1)-th eigenvalue is bounded, under the alternative of a change (either in the loadings, or in the number of factors itself) it becomes spiked. Given that the sample eigenvalue cannot be estimated consistently under the null, we regularise the problem by randomising the test statistic in conjunction with sample conditioning, obtaining a sequence of i.i.d., asymptotically chi-square statistics which are then employed to build the monitoring scheme. Numerical evidence shows that our procedure works very well in finite samples, with a very small probability of false detections and tight detection times in presence of a genuine change-point.

Suggested Citation

  • Matteo Barigozzi & Lorenzo Trapani, 2018. "Sequential testing for structural stability in approximate factor models," Discussion Papers 18/04, University of Nottingham, Granger Centre for Time Series Econometrics.
  • Handle: RePEc:not:notgts:18/04
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.nottingham.ac.uk/research/groups/grangercentre/documents/18-04.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Trapani, Lorenzo, 2016. "Testing for (in)finite moments," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 191(1), pages 57-68.
    2. Horváth, Lajos & Kokoszka, Piotr & Steinebach, Josef, 2007. "On sequential detection of parameter changes in linear regression," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 77(9), pages 885-895, May.
    3. Johnstone, Iain M. & Lu, Arthur Yu, 2009. "On Consistency and Sparsity for Principal Components Analysis in High Dimensions," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 104(486), pages 682-693.
    4. Bates, Brandon J. & Plagborg-Møller, Mikkel & Stock, James H. & Watson, Mark W., 2013. "Consistent factor estimation in dynamic factor models with structural instability," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 177(2), pages 289-304.
    5. Forni, Mario & Lippi, Marco, 2001. "The Generalized Dynamic Factor Model: Representation Theory," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 17(06), pages 1113-1141, December.
    6. Andreou, Elena & Ghysels, Eric, 2006. "Monitoring disruptions in financial markets," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 135(1-2), pages 77-124.
    7. Jianqing Fan & Yuan Liao & Martina Mincheva, 2013. "Large covariance estimation by thresholding principal orthogonal complements," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 75(4), pages 603-680, September.
    8. Jushan Bai & Serena Ng, 2002. "Determining the Number of Factors in Approximate Factor Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(1), pages 191-221, January.
    9. Bandi, Federico M. & Corradi, Valentina, 2014. "Nonparametric Nonstationarity Tests," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 30(01), pages 127-149, February.
    10. Breitung, Jörg & Eickmeier, Sandra, 2011. "Testing for structural breaks in dynamic factor models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 163(1), pages 71-84, July.
    11. Bai, Zhidong & Yao, Jianfeng, 2012. "On sample eigenvalues in a generalized spiked population model," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 167-177.
    12. Haeran Cho & Piotr Fryzlewicz, 2015. "Multiple-change-point detection for high dimensional time series via sparsified binary segmentation," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 77(2), pages 475-507, March.
    13. Massacci, Daniele, 2017. "Least squares estimation of large dimensional threshold factor models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 197(1), pages 101-129.
    14. Chen, Liang & Dolado, Juan J. & Gonzalo, Jesús, 2014. "Detecting big structural breaks in large factor models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 180(1), pages 30-48.
    15. Aue, Alexander & Hörmann, Siegfried & Horváth, Lajos & Hušková, Marie & Steinebach, Josef G., 2012. "Sequential Testing For The Stability Of High-Frequency Portfolio Betas," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 28(04), pages 804-837, August.
    16. Seung C. Ahn & Alex R. Horenstein, 2013. "Eigenvalue Ratio Test for the Number of Factors," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 81(3), pages 1203-1227, May.
    17. De Mol, Christine & Giannone, Domenico & Reichlin, Lucrezia, 2006. "Forecasting Using a Large Number of Predictors: Is Bayesian Regression a Valid Alternative to Principal Components?," CEPR Discussion Papers 5829, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    18. Alexei Onatski & Marcelo Moreira J. & Marc Hallin, 2012. "Signal Detection in High Dmension: The Multispiked Case," Working Papers ECARES ECARES 2012-036, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    19. Jan J. J. Groen & George Kapetanios & Simon Price, 2013. "Multivariate Methods For Monitoring Structural Change," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(2), pages 250-274, March.
    20. Corradi, Valentina & Swanson, Norman R., 2006. "The effect of data transformation on common cycle, cointegration, and unit root tests: Monte Carlo results and a simple test," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 132(1), pages 195-229, May.
    21. Forni, Mario & Giannone, Domenico & Lippi, Marco & Reichlin, Lucrezia, 2009. "Opening The Black Box: Structural Factor Models With Large Cross Sections," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 25(05), pages 1319-1347, October.
    22. Chihwa Kao & Lorenzo Trapani & Giovanni Urga, 2012. "Testing for Instability in Covariance Structures," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 131, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
    23. Xu Cheng & Zhipeng Liao & Frank Schorfheide, 2016. "Shrinkage Estimation of High-Dimensional Factor Models with Structural Instabilities," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 83(4), pages 1511-1543.
    24. Corradi, Valentina & Swanson, Norman R., 2014. "Testing for structural stability of factor augmented forecasting models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 182(1), pages 100-118.
    25. Forni, Mario & Hallin, Marc & Lippi, Marco & Zaffaroni, Paolo, 2017. "Dynamic factor models with infinite-dimensional factor space: Asymptotic analysis," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 199(1), pages 74-92.
    26. Stock, James H. & Watson, Mark, 2011. "Dynamic Factor Models," Scholarly Articles 28469541, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    27. Bai, Jushan, 2010. "Common breaks in means and variances for panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 157(1), pages 78-92, July.
    28. Clifford Lam & Qiwei Yao & Neil Bathia, 2011. "Estimation of latent factors for high-dimensional time series," Biometrika, Biometrika Trust, vol. 98(4), pages 901-918.
    29. Baltagi, Badi H. & Kao, Chihwa & Wang, Fa, 2017. "Identification and estimation of a large factor model with structural instability," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 197(1), pages 87-100.
    30. Lam, Clifford & Yao, Qiwei & Bathia, Neil, 2011. "Estimation of latent factors for high-dimensional time series," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 31549, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    31. Aue, Alexander & Horváth, Lajos, 2004. "Delay time in sequential detection of change," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 67(3), pages 221-231, April.
    32. Jushan Bai, 2003. "Inferential Theory for Factor Models of Large Dimensions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(1), pages 135-171, January.
    33. Mario Forni & Marc Hallin & Marco Lippi & Lucrezia Reichlin, 2000. "The Generalized Dynamic-Factor Model: Identification And Estimation," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(4), pages 540-554, November.
    34. Han, Xu & Inoue, Atsushi, 2015. "Tests For Parameter Instability In Dynamic Factor Models," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 31(05), pages 1117-1152, October.
    35. Chamberlain, Gary & Rothschild, Michael, 1983. "Arbitrage, Factor Structure, and Mean-Variance Analysis on Large Asset Markets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(5), pages 1281-1304, September.
    36. De Mol, Christine & Giannone, Domenico & Reichlin, Lucrezia, 2008. "Forecasting using a large number of predictors: Is Bayesian shrinkage a valid alternative to principal components?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 146(2), pages 318-328, October.
    37. Alexei Onatski, 2010. "Determining the Number of Factors from Empirical Distribution of Eigenvalues," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 92(4), pages 1004-1016, November.
    38. Yamamoto, Yohei & Tanaka, Shinya, 2015. "Testing for factor loading structural change under common breaks," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 189(1), pages 187-206.
    39. Bai, Jushan, 2004. "Estimating cross-section common stochastic trends in nonstationary panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 122(1), pages 137-183, September.
    40. Onatski, Alexei, 2012. "Asymptotics of the principal components estimator of large factor models with weakly influential factors," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 168(2), pages 244-258.
    41. Lam, Clifford & Yao, Qiwei, 2012. "Factor modeling for high-dimensional time series: inference for the number of factors," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 45684, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    42. Stock J.H. & Watson M.W., 2002. "Forecasting Using Principal Components From a Large Number of Predictors," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 97, pages 1167-1179, December.
    43. Chu, Chia-Shang James & Stinchcombe, Maxwell & White, Halbert, 1996. "Monitoring Structural Change," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(5), pages 1045-1065, September.
    44. Alessi, Lucia & Barigozzi, Matteo & Capasso, Marco, 2010. "Improved penalization for determining the number of factors in approximate factor models," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 80(23-24), pages 1806-1813, December.
    45. Hallin, Marc & Liska, Roman, 2011. "Dynamic factors in the presence of blocks," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 163(1), pages 29-41, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    large factor model; change-point; sequential testing; randomised tests.;

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:not:notgts:18/04. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/tsnotuk.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.