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Dynamic Factor Models with Infinite-Dimensional Factor Space. Asymptotic Analysis

Author

Listed:
  • Mario Forni

    (Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, CEPR and RECent)

  • Marc Hallin

    (ECARES, Université Libre de Bruxelles)

  • Marco Lippi

    (EIEF)

  • Paolo Zaffaroni

    (Imperial College London and Università di Roma La Sapienza)

Abstract

Factor models, all particular cases of the Generalized Dynamic Factor Model (GDFM) introduced in Forni, Hallin, Lippi and Reichlin (2000), have become extremely popular in the theory and practice of large panels of time series data. The asymptotic properties (consistency and rates) of the corresponding estimators have been studied in Forni, Hallin, Lippi and Reichlin (2004). Those estimators, however, rely on Brillinger's dynamic principal components, and thus involve two-sided filters, which leads to rather poor forecasting performances. No such problem arises with estimators based on standard (static) principal components, which have been dominant in this literature. On the other hand, the consistency of those static estimators requires the assumption that the space spanned by the factors has finite dimension, which severely restricts the generality afforded by the GDFM. This paper derives the asymptotic properties of a semiparametric estimator of the loadings and common shocks based on one-sided filters recently proposed by Forni, Hallin, Lippi and Zaffaroni (2015). Consistency and exact rates of convergence are obtained for this estimator, under a general class of GDFMs that does not require a finite-dimensional factor space. A Monte Carlo experiment and an empirical exercise on US macroeconomic data corroborate those theoretical results and demonstrate the excellent performance of those estimators in out-of-sample forecasting.

Suggested Citation

  • Mario Forni & Marc Hallin & Marco Lippi & Paolo Zaffaroni, 2016. "Dynamic Factor Models with Infinite-Dimensional Factor Space. Asymptotic Analysis," EIEF Working Papers Series 1607, Einaudi Institute for Economics and Finance (EIEF), revised Apr 2016.
  • Handle: RePEc:eie:wpaper:1607
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Forni, Mario & Hallin, Marc & Lippi, Marco & Reichlin, Lucrezia, 2004. "The generalized dynamic factor model consistency and rates," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 119(2), pages 231-255, April.
    2. Jushan Bai & Serena Ng, 2002. "Determining the Number of Factors in Approximate Factor Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(1), pages 191-221, January.
    3. Forni, Mario & Hallin, Marc & Lippi, Marco & Zaffaroni, Paolo, 2015. "Dynamic factor models with infinite-dimensional factor spaces: One-sided representations," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 185(2), pages 359-371.
    4. Seung C. Ahn & Alex R. Horenstein, 2013. "Eigenvalue Ratio Test for the Number of Factors," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 81(3), pages 1203-1227, May.
    5. Alexei Onatski, 2009. "Testing Hypotheses About the Number of Factors in Large Factor Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 77(5), pages 1447-1479, September.
    6. James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 2012. "Generalized Shrinkage Methods for Forecasting Using Many Predictors," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(4), pages 481-493, June.
    7. Forni, Mario & Hallin, Marc & Lippi, Marco & Zaffaroni, Paolo, 2017. "Dynamic factor models with infinite-dimensional factor space: Asymptotic analysis," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 199(1), pages 74-92.
    8. Forni, Mario & Giovannelli, Alessandro & Lippi, Marco & Soccorsi, Stefano, 2016. "Dynamic Factor model with infinite dimensional factor space: forecasting," CEPR Discussion Papers 11161, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    9. Bai, Jushan & Ng, Serena, 2007. "Determining the Number of Primitive Shocks in Factor Models," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 25, pages 52-60, January.
    10. Forni, Mario & Giannone, Domenico & Lippi, Marco & Reichlin, Lucrezia, 2009. "Opening The Black Box: Structural Factor Models With Large Cross Sections," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 25(05), pages 1319-1347, October.
    11. Antonello D’ Agostino & Domenico Giannone, 2012. "Comparing Alternative Predictors Based on Large‐Panel Factor Models," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 74(2), pages 306-326, April.
    12. Forni, Mario & Lippi, Marco, 2001. "The Generalized Dynamic Factor Model: Representation Theory," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 17(06), pages 1113-1141, December.
    13. Forni, Mario & Hallin, Marc & Lippi, Marco & Reichlin, Lucrezia, 2005. "The Generalized Dynamic Factor Model: One-Sided Estimation and Forecasting," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 100, pages 830-840, September.
    14. Mario Forni & Marc Hallin & Marco Lippi & Lucrezia Reichlin, 2000. "The Generalized Dynamic-Factor Model: Identification And Estimation," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(4), pages 540-554, November.
    15. Alexei Onatski, 2010. "Determining the Number of Factors from Empirical Distribution of Eigenvalues," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 92(4), pages 1004-1016, November.
    16. Alessi, Lucia & Barigozzi, Matteo & Capasso, Marco, 2010. "Improved penalization for determining the number of factors in approximate factor models," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 80(23-24), pages 1806-1813, December.
    17. Hallin, Marc & Lippi, Marco, 2013. "Factor models in high-dimensional time series—A time-domain approach," Stochastic Processes and their Applications, Elsevier, vol. 123(7), pages 2678-2695.
    18. Forni, Mario & Gambetti, Luca, 2014. "Sufficient information in structural VARs," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 124-136.
    19. Amengual, Dante & Watson, Mark W., 2007. "Consistent Estimation of the Number of Dynamic Factors in a Large N and T Panel," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 25, pages 91-96, January.
    20. Hallin, Marc & Liska, Roman, 2007. "Determining the Number of Factors in the General Dynamic Factor Model," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 102, pages 603-617, June.
    21. Liu, Weidong & Wu, Wei Biao, 2010. "Asymptotics Of Spectral Density Estimates," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 26(04), pages 1218-1245, August.
    22. Stock, James H & Watson, Mark W, 2002. "Macroeconomic Forecasting Using Diffusion Indexes," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(2), pages 147-162, April.
    23. Stock J.H. & Watson M.W., 2002. "Forecasting Using Principal Components From a Large Number of Predictors," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 97, pages 1167-1179, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Forni, Mario & Hallin, Marc & Lippi, Marco & Zaffaroni, Paolo, 2015. "Dynamic factor models with infinite-dimensional factor spaces: One-sided representations," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 185(2), pages 359-371.
    2. Marc Hallin & Siegfried Hörmann & Marco Lippi, 2017. "Optimal Dimension Reduction for High-dimensional and Functional Time Series," Working Papers ECARES ECARES 2017-39, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    3. repec:taf:jnlasa:v:111:y:2016:i:515:p:1121-1131 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Forni, Mario & Hallin, Marc & Lippi, Marco & Zaffaroni, Paolo, 2017. "Dynamic factor models with infinite-dimensional factor space: Asymptotic analysis," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 199(1), pages 74-92.
    5. Mario Forni & Alessandro Giovannelli & Marco Lippi & Stefano Soccorsi, 2016. "Dynamic Factor Model with Infinite Dimensional Factor Space: Forecasting," Working Papers ECARES ECARES 2016-16, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    6. repec:spr:sistpr:v:21:y:2018:i:2:d:10.1007_s11203-018-9172-1 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Barigozzi, Matteo & Lippi, Marco & Luciani, Matteo, 2016. "Non-Stationary Dynamic Factor Models for Large Datasets," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2016-024, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), revised 18 Jul 2017.
    8. repec:eee:econom:v:201:y:2017:i:2:p:307-321 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. F. Della Marra, 2017. "A forecasting performance comparison of dynamic factor models based on static and dynamic methods," Economics Department Working Papers 2017-ME01, Department of Economics, Parma University (Italy).
    10. repec:bla:jorssc:v:66:y:2017:i:3:p:581-605 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Matteo Barigozzi & Marc Hallin, 2015. "Networks, Dynamic Factors, and the Volatility Analysis of High-Dimensional Financial Series," Papers 1510.05118, arXiv.org, revised Jul 2016.
    12. Smeekes, Stephan & Wijler, Etienne, 2018. "Macroeconomic forecasting using penalized regression methods," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 408-430.
    13. Jari Miettinen & Katrin Illner & Klaus Nordhausen & Hannu Oja & Sara Taskinen & Fabian J. Theis, 2016. "Separation of Uncorrelated Stationary time series using Autocovariance Matrices," Journal of Time Series Analysis, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(3), pages 337-354, May.
    14. Matteo Barigozzi & Lorenzo Trapani, 2017. "Sequential testing for structural stability in approximate factor models," Papers 1708.02786, arXiv.org, revised Mar 2018.
    15. Matteo Barigozzi & Marco Lippi & Matteo Luciani, 2014. "Dynamic Factor Models, Cointegration and Error Correction Mechanisms," Working Papers ECARES ECARES 2014-14, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    16. Christian Gross & Pierre L. Siklos, 2018. "Analyzing Credit Risk Transmission to the Non-Financial Sector in Europe: A Network Approach," CQE Working Papers 7218, Center for Quantitative Economics (CQE), University of Muenster.
    17. Barigozzi, Matteo & Hallin, Marc, 2017. "Generalized dynamic factor models and volatilities: estimation and forecasting," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 201(2), pages 307-321.
    18. Gross, Christian & Siklos, Pierre, 2018. "Analyzing credit risk transmission to the non-financial sector in Europe: a network approach," ESRB Working Paper Series 78, European Systemic Risk Board.
    19. Matteo Barigozzi & Marc Hallin & Stefano Soccorsi, 2017. "Identification of Global and National Shocks in International Financial Markets via General Dynamic Factor Models," Working Papers ECARES ECARES 2017-10, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.

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    JEL classification:

    • C0 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - General
    • C01 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - General - - - Econometrics
    • E0 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General

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