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Citations for "Intellectual Human Capital and the Birth of U.S. Biotechnology Enterprises"

by Zucker, Lynne G & Darby, Michael R & Brewer, Marilynn B

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  1. Krabel, Stefan & Mueller, Pamela, 2009. "What drives scientists to start their own company?: An empirical investigation of Max Planck Society scientists," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 947-956, July.
  2. Andersson, Martin & Ejermo, Olof, 2005. "How does Accessibility to Knowledge Sources Affect the Innovativeness of Corporations? Evidence from Sweden," Papers in Innovation Studies 2005/4, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
  3. Juan Alcacer & Mercedes Delgado, 2012. "Spatial Organization of Firms: Internal and External Agglomeration Economies and Location Choices Through the Value Chain," Working Papers 12-33, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  4. Carlino, Gerald A. & Kerr, William R., 2014. "Agglomeration and innovation," Working Papers 14-26, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  5. Edward L. Glaeser & William R. Kerr, 2009. "Local Industrial Conditions and Entrepreneurship: How Much of the Spatial Distribution Can We Explain?," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(3), pages 623-663, 09.
  6. Enrico Moretti & Daniel J. Wilson, 2013. "State Incentives for Innovation, Star Scientists and Jobs: Evidence from Biotech," Working Paper Series 42_13, The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis.
  7. Gentiana Gjino & Orkida Ilollari (Findiku), 2014. "Mobile banking: near future of banking," Review of Applied Socio-Economic Research, Pro Global Science Association, vol. 7(1), pages 43-51, June.
  8. Luo, Xiaowei Rose & Koput, Kenneth W. & Powell, Walter W., 2009. "Intellectual capital or signal? The effects of scientists on alliance formation in knowledge-intensive industries," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(8), pages 1313-1325, October.
  9. Michael R. Darby & Lynne G. Zucker, 1996. "Star Scientists, Institutions, and the Entry of Japanese Biotechnology Enterprises," NBER Working Papers 5795, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Larsen, Maria Theresa, 2011. "The implications of academic enterprise for public science: An overview of the empirical evidence," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 6-19, February.
  11. Kolympiris, Christos & Kalaitzandonakes, Nicholas & Miller, Douglas, 2014. "Public funds and local biotechnology firm creation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 121-137.
  12. Jeremy Foltz & Bradford Barham & Kwansoo Kim, 2000. "Universities and agricultural biotechnology patent production," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(1), pages 82-95.
  13. Li, QC & Tether, BS & Mina, A, 2012. "Knowledge-bases, places, spatial configurations and the performance of knowledge-intensive professional service firms," Working Papers 9793, Imperial College, London, Imperial College Business School.
  14. Lynne G. Zucker & Michael R. Darby & Maximo Torero, 2002. "Labor Mobility from Academe to Commerce," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(3), pages 629-660, July.
  15. Marie C. Thursby & Jerry Thursby & Swasti Gupta-Mukherjee, 2007. "Are There Real Effects of Licensing on Academic Research? A life cycle view," NBER Chapters, in: Academic Science and Entrepreneurship: Dual Engines of Growth National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. Audretsch, David B. & Hülsbeck, Marcel & Lehmann, Erik E., 2010. "Regional competitiveness, university spillovers and entrepreneurial activity," UO Working Papers 02-10, University of Augsburg, Chair of Management and Organization.
  17. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Hussinger, Katrin & Schneider, Cédric, 2009. "The nexus between science and industry: evidence from faculty inventions," ZEW Discussion Papers 09-028, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  18. Tzabbar, Daniel & Aharonson, Barak S. & Amburgey, Terry L., 2013. "When does tapping external sources of knowledge result in knowledge integration?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 481-494.
  19. Fier, Heide & Pyka, Andreas, 2010. "Against the one-way-street: Analyzing knowledge transfer from industry to science," ZEW Discussion Papers 10-048, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  20. Hu, Mei-Chih, 2012. "Technological innovation capabilities in the thin film transistor-liquid crystal display industries of Japan, Korea, and Taiwan," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 541-555.
  21. Kato, Masatoshi & Odagiri, Hiroyuki, 2012. "Development of university life-science programs and university–industry joint research in Japan," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(5), pages 939-952.
  22. Loss, Frédéric & Renucci, Antoine, 2008. "Reputation Capital, Financial Capital, and Transition to Entrepreneurship," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/2945, Paris Dauphine University.
  23. Jungbu Kim, 2010. "Political Institutions and Public R&D Expenditures in Democratic Countries," Working Papers EMS_2010_16, Research Institute, International University of Japan.
  24. Lerner, Josh, 2006. "The new new financial thing: The origins of financial innovations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(2), pages 223-255, February.
  25. Joanna Poyago-Theotoky & John Beath & Donald S. Siegel, 2002. "Universities and Fundamental Research: Reflections on the Growth of University-Industry Partnership," Discussion Paper Series, Department of Economics 200201, Department of Economics, University of St. Andrews.
  26. Michaela Trippl & Joshua von Gabain & Franz Tödtling, 2006. "Policy agents as catalysts of knowledge links in the biotechnology sector," SRE-Disc sre-disc-2006_01, Institute for Multilevel Governance and Development, Department of Socioeconomics, Vienna University of Economics and Business.
  27. Jong, Simcha, 2008. "Academic organizations and new industrial fields: Berkeley and Stanford after the rise of biotechnology," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 1267-1282, September.
  28. Jan Youtie & Philip Shapira, 2008. "Mapping the nanotechnology enterprise: a multi-indicator analysis of emerging nanodistricts in the US South," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 33(2), pages 209-223, April.
  29. Astrid Romain & ANT Bozkaya & Bruno Van Pottelsberghe, 2003. "Surveying technology-based small firms: a perspective from Belgium," Working Papers CEB 04-020.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  30. Saul Lach & Mark Schankerman, 2004. "Incentives and Invention in Universities," STICERD - Economics of Industry Papers 33, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
  31. Fiona Murray & Scott Stern, 2005. "Do Formal Intellectual Property Rights Hinder the Free Flow of Scientific Knowledge? An Empirical Test of the Anti-Commons Hypothesis," NBER Working Papers 11465, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  32. Quella, Núria, 2007. "Intra- and Inter-Sectoral Knowledge Spillovers and TFP Growth Rates," MPRA Paper 2853, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  33. Oliver, Amalya L., 2004. "Biotechnology entrepreneurial scientists and their collaborations," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 583-597, May.
  34. Chen, Kun & Kenney, Martin, 2007. "Universities/Research Institutes and Regional Innovation Systems: The Cases of Beijing and Shenzhen," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 1056-1074, June.
  35. Jue Wang & Philip Shapira, 2012. "Partnering with universities: a good choice for nanotechnology start-up firms?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 38(2), pages 197-215, February.
  36. Lynne G. Zucker & Michael R. Darby, 1996. "Costly Information in Firm Transformation, Exit, or Persistent Failure," NBER Working Papers 5577, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  37. Chang, Yuan-Chieh & Yang, Phil Y. & Chen, Ming-Huei, 2009. "The determinants of academic research commercial performance: Towards an organizational ambidexterity perspective," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 936-946, July.
  38. Amon, Christian & Gersbach, Hans & Sorger, Gerhard, 2010. "Hierarchical Growth: Basic and Applied Research," CEPR Discussion Papers 7950, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  39. Stephen Roper & Nola Hewitt-Dundas & James H Love, 2003. "An Ex Ante Evaluation Framework for the Regional Impact of Publicly Supported R&D Projects," ERSA conference papers ersa03p100, European Regional Science Association.
  40. Kesidou, Effie & Romijn, Henny, 2008. "Do Local Knowledge Spillovers Matter for Development? An Empirical Study of Uruguay's Software Cluster," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(10), pages 2004-2028, October.
  41. Lars Calmfors & Giancarlo Corsetti & John Flemming & Seppo Honkapohja & John Kay & Willi Leibfritz & Gilles Saint-Paul & Hans-Werner Sinn & Xavier Vives, 2003. "Should We Worry about the Brain Drain?," EEAG Report on the European Economy, CESifo Group Munich, vol. 0, pages 118-130, 05.
  42. David Audretsch & Erik Lehmann & Susanne Warning, 2004. "University Spillovers and New Firm Location," Working Papers of the Research Group Heterogenous Labor 04-13, Research Group Heterogeneous Labor, University of Konstanz/ZEW Mannheim.
  43. Hirukawa, Masayuki & Ueda, Masako, 2008. "Venture Capital and Innovation: Which is First?," CEPR Discussion Papers 7090, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  44. Colombo, Luca & Dawid, Herbert & Piva, Mariacristina & Vivarelli, Marco, 2013. "Does Easy Start-Up Formation Hamper Incumbents' R&D Investment? A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis," IZA Discussion Papers 7302, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  45. Elsa Martin & Hubert Stahn, 2011. "Should we reallocate patent fees to the universities?," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(7), pages 681-700, September.
  46. Hottenrott, Hanna & Lawson, Cornelia, 2013. "Fishing for Complementarities: Competitive Research Funding and Research Productivity," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis LEI & BRICK - Laboratory of Economics of Innovation "Franco Momigliano", Bureau of Research in Innovation, Complexity and Knowledge, Collegio 201318, University of Turin.
  47. Furman, Jeffrey L. & Porter, Michael E. & Stern, Scott, 2002. "The determinants of national innovative capacity," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 899-933, August.
  48. Niosi, Jorge, 2003. "Alliances are not enough explaining rapid growth in biotechnology firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 737-750, May.
  49. Fritjof Karnani, 2013. "The university’s unknown knowledge: tacit knowledge, technology transfer and university spin-offs findings from an empirical study based on the theory of knowledge," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 38(3), pages 235-250, June.
  50. Toole, Andrew A. & Czarnitzki, Dirk, 2005. "Biomedical Academic Entrepreneurship Through the SBIR Program," ZEW Discussion Papers 05-47, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  51. Edward E. Leamer & Michael Storper, 2001. "The Economic Geography of the Internet Age," NBER Working Papers 8450, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  52. Patrucco, Pier Paolo, 2006. "The Production Of Scientific Knowledge In Italy : Evidence In Theoretical, Applied And Technical Sciences," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis LEI & BRICK - Laboratory of Economics of Innovation "Franco Momigliano", Bureau of Research in Innovation, Complexity and Knowledge, Collegio 200601, University of Turin.
  53. Broström, Anders & Lööf, Hans, 2008. "How does University Collaboration Contribute to Successful R&D Management?," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 131, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
  54. Martin Andersson & Olof Ejermo, 2002. "Knowledge Production in Swedish Functional Regions 1993-1999," KITeS Working Papers 139, KITeS, Centre for Knowledge, Internationalization and Technology Studies, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy, revised Feb 2003.
  55. Junfu Zhang, 2006. "A Study of Academic Entrepreneurs Using Venture Capital Data," PPIC Working Papers 2006.01, Public Policy Institute of California.
  56. Oscarina Conceição & Ana Paula Faria, 2014. "Determinants of research-based spin-offs survival," NIPE Working Papers 21/2014, NIPE - Universidade do Minho.
  57. Michael Stolpe, 2003. "Distribution Dynamics in European Venture Capital," Kiel Working Papers 1191, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  58. Parker, Simon C., 2011. "Intrapreneurship or entrepreneurship?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 19-34, January.
  59. Patton, Donald & Kenney, Martin, 2003. "The Spatial Distribution of Entrepreneurial Support Networks: Evidence from Semiconductor Inital Public Offerings from 1996 through 2000," UCAIS Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy, Working Paper Series qt7mb03695, UCAIS Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy, UC Berkeley.
  60. Debackere, Koenraad & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 2005. "The role of academic technology transfer organizations in improving industry science links," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 321-342, April.
  61. Ajay Agrawal & Iain Cockburn & John McHale, 2003. "Gone But Not Forgotten: Labor Flows, Knowledge Spillovers, and Enduring Social Capital," NBER Working Papers 9950, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  62. Teodora Corsatea & Hubert Jayet, 2014. "Spatial patterns of innovation activities in France: market’s role versus public research efforts," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 52(3), pages 739-762, May.
  63. Samantha Bradley & Christopher Hayter & Albert Link, 2013. "Proof of Concept Centers in the United States: an exploratory look," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 38(4), pages 349-381, August.
  64. Colyvas, Jeannette A., 2007. "From divergent meanings to common practices: The early institutionalization of technology transfer in the life sciences at Stanford University," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 456-476, May.
  65. Edgar Morgenroth, 2003. "What should Policy Makers Learn from Recent Advances in Growth Theory and New Economic Geography?," Papers WP150, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
  66. Stephen Roper & James Love, 2006. "Innovation and regional absorptive capacity: the labour market dimension," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 40(2), pages 437-447, June.
  67. Lam, Alice, 2011. "What motivates academic scientists to engage in research commercialization: ‘Gold’, ‘ribbon’ or ‘puzzle’?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(10), pages 1354-1368.
  68. Chava, Sudheer & Oettl, Alexander & Subramanian, Ajay & Subramanian, Krishnamurthy V., 2013. "Banking deregulation and innovation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(3), pages 759-774.
  69. Anna Lejpras, 2012. "How Innovative Are Spin-offs at Later Stages of Development?: Comparing Innovativeness of Established Research Spin-offs and Otherwise Created Firms," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1237, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  70. Uwe Cantner & Holger Graf, 2004. "The Network of Innovators in Jena: An Application of Social Network Analysis," Jenaer Schriften zur Wirtschaftswissenschaft 04/2004, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät.
  71. Ajay K. Agrawal & Avi Goldfarb, 2006. "Restructuring Research: Communication Costs and the Democratization of University Innovation," NBER Working Papers 12812, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  72. Cassiman, Bruno & Veugelers, Reinhilde & Zuniga, Pluvia, 2007. "Science linkages and innovation performance: An analysis on CIS-3 firms in Belgium," IESE Research Papers D/671, IESE Business School.
  73. Toole, Andrew A. & Czarnitzki, Dirk, 2007. "Life Scientist Mobility from Academe to Industry: Does Academic Entrepreneurship Induce a Costly ?Brain Drain? on the Not-for-Profit Research Sector?," ZEW Discussion Papers 07-072, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  74. Azoulay, Pierre & Ding, Waverly & Stuart, Toby, 2007. "The determinants of faculty patenting behavior: Demographics or opportunities?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 63(4), pages 599-623, August.
  75. Baba, Yasunori & Shichijo, Naohiro & Sedita, Silvia Rita, 2009. "How do collaborations with universities affect firms' innovative performance? The role of "Pasteur scientists" in the advanced materials field," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 756-764, June.
  76. David Mowery, 2011. "Nanotechnology and the US national innovation system: continuity and change," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 36(6), pages 697-711, December.
  77. Montserrat Vilalta-Bufi, 2008. "On the industry experience premium and labor mobility," Working Papers in Economics 208, Universitat de Barcelona. Espai de Recerca en Economia.
  78. Ronde, Patrick & Hussler, Caroline, 2005. "Innovation in regions: What does really matter?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1150-1172, October.
  79. Donald S. Siegel & Phillip H. Phan, 2004. "Analyzing the Effectiveness of University Technology Transfer: Implications for Entrepreneurship Education," Rensselaer Working Papers in Economics 0426, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Economics.
  80. Peter Thompson & Mihaela Pintea, 2007. "Sorting, Selection, and Industry Shakeouts," Working Papers 0702, Florida International University, Department of Economics.
  81. Jason Owen-Smith & Massimo Riccaboni & Fabio Pammolli & Walter W. Powell, 2002. "A Comparison of U.S. and European University-Industry Relations in the Life Sciences," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 48(1), pages 24-43, January.
  82. Gerben Bakker, 2013. "Money for nothing: how firms have financed R&D-projects since the industrial revolution," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 51527, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  83. Neil Foster-McGregor & Johannes Pöschl, 2009. "The Importance of Labour Mobility for Spillovers across Industries," wiiw Working Papers 58, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
  84. Pierre Azoulay & Waverly Ding & Toby Stuart, 2006. "The Impact of Academic Patenting on the Rate, Quality, and Direction of (Public) Research Output," NBER Working Papers 11917, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  85. Anastasios Karamanos, 2002. "Market Networks and the Value in Knowledge Exchanges: Evidence from Biotechnology Strategic Alliances," ESRC Centre for Business Research - Working Papers wp240, ESRC Centre for Business Research.
  86. Coombs, Joseph E. & Mudambi, Ram & Deeds, David L., 2006. "An examination of the investments in U.S. biotechnology firms by foreign and domestic corporate partners," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 405-428, July.
  87. James D. Adams & J. Roger Clemmons & Paula E. Stephan, 2010. "Standing on Academic Shoulders: Measuring Scientific Influence in Universities," NBER Chapters, in: Contributions in Memory of Zvi Griliches, pages 61-90 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  88. Stuart, Toby E. & Ozdemir, Salih Zeki & Ding, Waverly W., 2007. "Vertical alliance networks: The case of university-biotechnology-pharmaceutical alliance chains," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 477-498, May.
  89. Fabrizio, Kira R., 2009. "Absorptive capacity and the search for innovation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 255-267, March.
  90. Richard Jensen & Marie Thursby, 1998. "Proofs and Prototypes for Sale: The Tale of University Licensing," NBER Working Papers 6698, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  91. Kesidou, Effie & Szirmai, Adam, 2008. "Local Knowledge Spillovers, Innovation and Economic Performance in Developing Countries: A discussion of alternative specifications," MERIT Working Papers 033, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  92. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Toole, Andrew A., 2007. "Exploring the relationship between scientist human capital and firm performance: The case of biomedical academic entrepreneurs in the SBIR program," ZEW Discussion Papers 07-011, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  93. Gilroy, Bernard Michael & Brandes, Wolfgang & Volpert, Tobias, 2003. "Economic Implications of Intellectual Property Rights for the Biotechnology Sector: A Comparative Analysis of the European-Japanese Situations," MPRA Paper 22200, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  94. Gulbrandsen, Magnus & Smeby, Jens-Christian, 2005. "Industry funding and university professors' research performance," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 932-950, August.
  95. Mariagrazia Squicciarini, 2009. "Science parks: seedbeds of innovation? A duration analysis of firms’ patenting activity," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 169-190, February.
  96. H. Wolf & Claus Michelsen & Michael Schwartz, 2010. "Regional Entrepreneurial Opportunities in the Biotech Industry: Exploring the Transition from Award-winning Nascent Entrepreneurs to Real Start-ups," IWH Discussion Papers 25, Halle Institute for Economic Research.
  97. Dirk Engel & Claire Champenois & Oliver Heneric, 2004. "The Birth of German Biotechnology Industry – Did Venture Capital run the show?," RWI Discussion Papers 0016, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung.
  98. Christos Kolympiris & Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes, 2013. "Geographic scope of proximity effects among small life sciences firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 40(4), pages 1059-1086, May.
  99. Markman, Gideon D. & Phan, Phillip H. & Balkin, David B. & Gianiodis, Peter T., 2005. "Entrepreneurship and university-based technology transfer," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 241-263, March.
  100. Kenney, Martin & Richard Goe, W., 2004. "The role of social embeddedness in professorial entrepreneurship: a comparison of electrical engineering and computer science at UC Berkeley and Stanford," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 691-707, July.
  101. Chok, Jay Inghwee, 2009. "Regulatory dependence and Scientific Advisory Boards," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 710-725, June.
  102. D'Este, P. & Patel, P., 2007. "University-industry linkages in the UK: What are the factors underlying the variety of interactions with industry?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 1295-1313, November.
  103. Rene Belderbos & Bart Leten & Shinya Suzuki, 2009. "Does Excellence in Academic Research Attract Foreign R&D?," Global COE Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series gd09-079, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  104. Serafinelli, Michel, 2013. "Good Firms, Worker Flows and Productivity," MPRA Paper 47508, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  105. David Audretsch & Erik Lehmann, 2006. "Do locational spillovers pay? empirical evidence from German IPO data," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(1), pages 71-81.
  106. Chen, Henry & Gompers, Paul & Kovner, Anna & Lerner, Josh, 2010. "Buy local? The geography of venture capital," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 90-102, January.
  107. Ajay Agrawal & Avi Goldfarb & Florenta Teodoridis, 2013. "Does Knowledge Accumulation Increase the Returns to Collaboration?," NBER Working Papers 19694, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  108. Wennberg, Karl & Wiklund, Johan & Wright, Mike, 2011. "The effectiveness of university knowledge spillovers: Performance differences between university spinoffs and corporate spinoffs," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(8), pages 1128-1143, October.
  109. Breschi, Stefano & Lissoni, Francesco, 2001. "Knowledge Spillovers and Local Innovation Systems: A Critical Survey," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(4), pages 975-1005, December.
  110. Susan Helper, 2000. "Economists and Field Research: "You Can Observe a Lot Just by Watching."," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(2), pages 228-232, May.
  111. Moretti, Enrico, 2010. "Local Labor Markets," CEPR Discussion Papers 7818, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  112. Marie Thursby & Richard Jensen, 2001. "Proofs and Prototypes for Sale: The Licensing of University Inventions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(1), pages 240-259, March.
  113. Enrico Moretti, 2006. "Private and Social Returns to Education," Rivista di Politica Economica, SIPI Spa, vol. 96(3), pages 3-46, May-June.
  114. Baum, Joel A. C. & Silverman, Brian S., 2004. "Picking winners or building them? Alliance, intellectual, and human capital as selection criteria in venture financing and performance of biotechnology startups," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 411-436, May.
  115. Aharonson, Barak S. & Baum, Joel A.C. & Plunket, Anne, 2008. "Inventive and uninventive clusters: The case of Canadian biotechnology," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(6-7), pages 1108-1131, July.
  116. Ufuk Akcigit & William R. Kerr, 2010. "Growth through Heterogeneous Innovations," PIER Working Paper Archive 10-035, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.
  117. De Silva, Dakshina G. & McComb, Robert P., 2009. "Research universities and regional high-tech firm start-ups and exit," MPRA Paper 13022, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  118. Ding, Waverly W. & Murray, Fiona & Stuart, Toby E., 2009. "Commercial Science: A New Arena for Gender Differences in Scientific Careers?," Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series qt0m0877rr, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
  119. Goldfarb, Brent & Henrekson, Magnus, 2001. "Bottom-Up vs. Top-Down Policies towards the Commercialization of University Intellectual Property," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 463, Stockholm School of Economics, revised 26 May 2002.
  120. James D. Adams & J. Roger Clemmons & Paula E. Stephan, 2006. "How Rapidly Does Science Leak Out?," Rensselaer Working Papers in Economics 0612, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Economics.
  121. Luukkonen, Terttu, 2003. "Variability in Forms of Organisation in Biotechnology Firms," Discussion Papers 872, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
  122. Aurora Teixeira & Joana Costa, 2006. "What Type of Firm Forges Closer Innovation Linkages with Portuguese Universities?," Notas Económicas, Faculdade de Economia, Universidade de Coimbra, issue 24, pages 22-47, December.
  123. Jochen Hartwig, 2013. "Structural change, aggregate demand and employment dynamics in the OECD, 1970-2010," KOF Working papers 13-343, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.
  124. Lee, In Hyeock & Hong, Eunsuk & Sun, Laixiang, 2013. "Regional knowledge production and entrepreneurial firm creation: Spatial Dynamic Analyses," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 66(10), pages 2106-2115.
  125. Chung, Chao-chen, 2013. "Government, policy-making and the development of innovation system: The cases of Taiwanese pharmaceutical biotechnology policies (2000–2008)," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(5), pages 1053-1071.
  126. Hector Rocha, 2004. "Entrepreneurship and Development: The Role of Clusters," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 23(5), pages 363-400, October.
  127. Riccardo Fini & Rosa Grimaldi & Maurizio Sobrero, 2009. "Factors fostering academics to start up new ventures: an assessment of Italian founders’ incentives," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 34(4), pages 380-402, August.
  128. Masao Nakamura & Robert Dalpé, 2003. "Interaction between public research organizations and industry in biotechnology," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(2-3), pages 171-185.
  129. Cooper, David P., 2001. "Innovation and reciprocal externalities: information transmission via job mobility," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 45(4), pages 403-425, August.
  130. Henrekson, Magnus & Rosenberg, Nathan, 2001. " Designing Efficient Institutions for Science-Based Entrepreneurship: Lessons from the US and Sweden," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 26(3), pages 207-31, June.
  131. Rachel Levy & Pascale Roux & Sandrine Wolff, 2009. "An analysis of science–industry collaborative patterns in a large European University," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 1-23, February.
  132. Simeon Schudy, 2006. "Jüngere Entwicklungen auf dem Risikokapitalmarkt für Biotechnologie in Deutschland," Kiel Working Papers 1270, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  133. Blomkvist, Katarina & Kappen, Philip & Zander, Ivo, 2014. "Superstar inventors—Towards a people-centric perspective on the geography of technological renewal in the multinational corporation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(4), pages 669-682.
  134. Lynne G. Zucker & Michael R. Darby, 1998. "Capturing Technological Opportunity via Japan's Star Scientists: Evidence from Japanese Firms' Biotech Patents and Products," NBER Working Papers 6360, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  135. Williams, David R., 2013. "Human and financial capital as determinants of biopharmaceutical IPO de-listings," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 66(12), pages 2612-2618.
  136. Michael Fritsch & Stefan Krabel, 2009. "Ready to Leave the Ivory Tower? - Academic Scientists' Appeal to Work in the Private Sector," Jena Economic Research Papers 2009-063, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
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