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University Spillovers: Strategic Location and New Firm Performance

  • Audretsch, David B
  • Lehmann, Erik E
  • Warning, Susanne

This study examines the impact of location choice as a firm strategy to access knowledge spillovers from universities. Based on a large data-set of young high-technology start-ups publicly listed in Germany, this Paper tests the propositions that not only geographic proximity to the university matters, but also that the degree to which location choice matters is shaped by the field and type of knowledge spillover. The role of geographic proximity as a location strategy is more important in accessing and absorbing knowledge spillovers from publications in scholarly journals in the social sciences than in the natural sciences. By contrast, geographic proximity is more important in accessing human capital embodied in university graduates in the natural sciences than in the social sciences. The results suggest that location proximity to a university effects firm performance.

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Paper provided by C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers in its series CEPR Discussion Papers with number 3837.

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Date of creation: Mar 2003
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Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:3837
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  1. Paula E. Stephan, 1996. "The Economics of Science," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 34(3), pages 1199-1235, September.
  2. Luc Anselin, 2000. "Geographical Spillovers and University Research: A Spatial EconometricPerspective," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(4), pages 501-515.
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  4. Santoro, Michael D. & Chakrabarti, Alok K., 2002. "Firm size and technology centrality in industry-university interactions," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1163-1180, September.
  5. Adam B. Jaffe & Manuel Trajtenberg & Rebecca Henderson, 1992. "Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations," NBER Working Papers 3993, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  7. Bronwyn H. Hall, Albert N. Link and John T. Scott., 2000. "Universities as Research Partners," Economics Working Papers E00-276, University of California at Berkeley.
  8. Audretsch, David B & Stephan, Paula E, 1996. "Company-Scientist Locational Links: The Case of Biotechnology," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(3), pages 641-52, June.
  9. Jaffe, Adam B, 1989. "Real Effects of Academic Research," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(5), pages 957-70, December.
  10. Scott Shane, 2001. "Technology Regimes and New Firm Formation," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 47(9), pages 1173-1190, September.
  11. Alan D. MacPherson, 1998. "Academic-industry linkages and small firm innovation: evidence from the scientific instruments sector," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(4), pages 261-276, January.
  12. Stuart, Toby & Sorenson, Olav, 2003. "The geography of opportunity: spatial heterogeneity in founding rates and the performance of biotechnology firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 229-253, February.
  13. Kiefer, Nicholas M, 1988. "Economic Duration Data and Hazard Functions," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 26(2), pages 646-79, June.
  14. Fabel, Oliver, 2001. "The emergence of a new economy: An O-Ring approach," Discussion Papers, Series I 314, University of Konstanz, Department of Economics.
  15. Lazear, Edward, 2003. "Entrepreneurship," IZA Discussion Papers 760, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  16. Attila Varga, 1998. "Local academic knowledge spillovers and the concentration of economic activity," ERSA conference papers ersa98p493, European Regional Science Association.
  17. David B. Audretsch & Paula E. Stephan, 1999. "Knowledge spillovers in biotechnology: sources and incentives," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 9(1), pages 97-107.
  18. Audretsch, David B & Lehmann, Erik, 2002. "Does the New Economy Need New Governance? Ownership, Knowledge and Performance," CEPR Discussion Papers 3626, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  19. Dietmar Harhoff, 1999. "Firm Formation And Regional Spillovers - Evidence From Germany," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(1-2), pages 27-55.
  20. Attila Varga, 2000. "Local Academic Knowledge Transfers and the Concentration of Economic Activity," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(2), pages 289-309.
  21. Zucker, Lynne G & Darby, Michael R & Brewer, Marilynn B, 1998. "Intellectual Human Capital and the Birth of U.S. Biotechnology Enterprises," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(1), pages 290-306, March.
  22. Anselin, Luc & Varga, Attila & Acs, Zoltan, 1997. "Local Geographic Spillovers between University Research and High Technology Innovations," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 422-448, November.
  23. Bania, Neil & Eberts, Randall W & Fogarty, Michael S, 1993. "Universities and the Startup of New Companies: Can We Generalize from Route 128 and Silicon Valley?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 75(4), pages 761-66, November.
  24. Audretsch, David B & Lehmann, Erik, 2002. "Debt or Equity? The Role of Venture Capital in Financing the New Economy in Germany," CEPR Discussion Papers 3656, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  25. Schrader, Stephan, 1991. "Informal technology transfer between firms: Cooperation through information trading," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 153-170, April.
  26. Scott Shane, 2001. "Technological Opportunities and New Firm Creation," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 47(2), pages 205-220, February.
  27. Acs, Zoltan J & Audretsch, David B & Feldman, Maryann P, 1992. "Real Effects of Academic Research: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(1), pages 363-67, March.
  28. Henderson, Rebecca. & Cockburn, Iain., 1994. "Measuring competence? : exploring firm effects in pharmaceutical research," Working papers 3712-94., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
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