Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations
We compare the geographic location of patent citations to those of the cited patents, as evidence of the extent to which knowledge spillovers are geographically localized. We find that citations to U.S. patents are more likely to come from the U.S., and more likely to come from the same state and SMSA as the cited patents than one would expect based only on the preexisting concentration of related research activity. These effects are particularly significant at the local (SMSA) level, and are particularly apparent in early citations.
|Date of creation:||Feb 1992|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published as The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol cviii. August 1993, issue 3 (MIT Press, Cambridge), p. 577|
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- Jeffrey Bernstein & Ishaq Nadiri, 1988.
"Interindustry R&D Spillovers, Rates of Return, and Production in High-Tech Industries,"
Carleton Industrial Organization Research Unit (CIORU)
88-01, Carleton University, Department of Economics.
- Bernstein, Jeffrey I & Nadiri, M Ishaq, 1988. "Interindustry R&D Spillovers, Rates of Return, and Production in High-Tech Industries," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(2), pages 429-34, May.
- Jeffrey I. Bernstein & M. Ishaq Nadiri, 1988. "Interindustry R&D Spillovers, Rates Of Return, and Production In High-Tech Industries," NBER Working Papers 2554, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Carpenter, Mark P. & Narin, Francis, 1983. "Validation study: Patent citations as indicators of science and foreign dependence," World Patent Information, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 180-185.
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