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Demand vs. Supply Driven Innovations: US and Swedish Experiences in Academic Entrepreneurship

Author

Listed:
  • Goldfarb, Brent

    () (Department of Economics, Stanford University)

  • Henrekson, Magnus

    () (Dept. of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics)

  • Rosenberg, Nathan

    () (Department of Economics, Stanford University)

Abstract

Measured by per-capita publication measures, Sweden is an academic powerhouse. Hence, its inability to commercialize on these accomplishments is a puzzle. This paper attributes this failure to the top-down nature of Swedish policies aimed at commercializing these innovations as well as an academic environment that discourages academics from actively participating in the commercialization of their ideas. This sits in stark contrast to the US institutional setting that is characterized by competition between universities for research funds and research personnel, which in turn has led to significant academic freedoms to interact with industry, particularly by founding new firms. We conclude that the technocratic, supply-driven nature of attempts to exploit academic output in Sweden has been markedly less successful than the demand-driven market institutions in the US.

Suggested Citation

  • Goldfarb, Brent & Henrekson, Magnus & Rosenberg, Nathan, 2001. "Demand vs. Supply Driven Innovations: US and Swedish Experiences in Academic Entrepreneurship," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 0436, Stockholm School of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:hastef:0436
    as

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    File URL: http://swopec.hhs.se/hastef/papers/hastef0436.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Annika Rickne & Staffan Jacobsson, 1999. "New Technology-Based Firms In Sweden - A Study Of Their Direct Impact On Industrial Renewal," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(3), pages 197-223.
    2. Richard Jensen & Marie Thursby, 1998. "Proofs and Prototypes for Sale: The Tale of University Licensing," NBER Working Papers 6698, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Henrekson, Magnus & Rosenberg, Nathan, 2000. "Incentives for Academic Entrepreneurship and Economic Performance: Sweden and the United States," Working Paper Series 530, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    4. Dahlstrand, Asa Lindholm, 1997. "Growth and inventiveness in technology-based spin-off firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 331-344, October.
    5. Henrekson, Magnus & Rosenberg, Nathan, 2001. "Designing Efficient Institutions for Science-Based Entrepreneurship: Lessons from the US and Sweden," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 26(3), pages 207-231, June.
    6. Jerry G. Thursby & Marie C. Thursby, 2002. "Who Is Selling the Ivory Tower? Sources of Growth in University Licensing," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 48(1), pages 90-104, January.
    7. Granstrand, O & Alange, S, 1995. "The Evolution of Corporate Entrepreneurship in Swedish Industry--Was Schumpeter Wrong?," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 5(2), pages 133-156, June.
    8. repec:hhs:iuiwop:530 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Donald Siegel & David Waldman & Albert Link, 1999. "Assessing the Impact of Organizational Practices on the Productivity of University Technology Transfer Offices: An Exploratory Study," NBER Working Papers 7256, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Zucker, Lynne G & Darby, Michael R & Brewer, Marilynn B, 1998. "Intellectual Human Capital and the Birth of U.S. Biotechnology Enterprises," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(1), pages 290-306, March.
    11. Audretsch, David B & Stephan, Paula E, 1996. "Company-Scientist Locational Links: The Case of Biotechnology," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(3), pages 641-652, June.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Wipo, 2011. "World Intellectual Property Report 2011- The Changing Face of Innovation," WIPO Economics & Statistics Series, World Intellectual Property Organization - Economics and Statistics Division, number 2011:944, October.
    2. Di Gregorio, Dante & Shane, Scott, 2003. "Why do some universities generate more start-ups than others?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 209-227, February.
    3. Terje Grønning, 2007. "Biotechnology business in Norway: Peripheral advantage, or just periphery?," Working Papers on Innovation Studies 20070607, Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Academic entrepreneurship; Innovation; R&D; Spin-off firms; Technology transfer; University-industry relations; Universities and business formation;

    JEL classification:

    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • O32 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
    • O57 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Comparative Studies of Countries

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