Proofs and Prototypes for Sale: The Tale of University Licensing
Proponents of the Bayh-Dole Act argue that unless universities have the right to license patentable inventions, many results from federally funded research would never be transferred to industry. Our survey of U.S. research universities supports this view. Results point to the embryonic state of most technologies licensed and the need for inventor cooperation in the commercialization process. Thus, for most university inventions, there is a moral hazard problem with regard to inventor effort. Our theoretical analysis shows that for such inventions, development would not occur unless the inventor's income is tied to the licensee's output by payments such as royalties or equity. Sponsored research can also be critical to commercialization, but it alone does not solve the inventor's moral hazard problem.
|Date of creation:||Aug 1998|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published as Jensen, Richard and Marie Thursby. "Proofs And Prototypes For Sale: The Licensing Of University Inventions," American Economic Review, 2001, v91(1,Mar), 240-259.|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.|
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Lerner, Josh & Merges, Robert P, 1998. "The Control of Technology Alliances: An Empirical Analysis of the Biotechnology Industry," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(2), pages 125-56, June.
- Thursby, J.G. & Kemp, S., 1998. "An Analysis of Productive Efficiency of University Commercialization Activities," Purdue University Economics Working Papers 1111, Purdue University, Department of Economics.
- Kamien, Morton I., 1992. "Patent licensing," Handbook of Game Theory with Economic Applications, in: R.J. Aumann & S. Hart (ed.), Handbook of Game Theory with Economic Applications, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 11, pages 331-354 Elsevier.
- Aghion, Philippe & Tirole, Jean, 1994. "Opening the black box of innovation," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(3-4), pages 701-710, April.
- Zucker, Lynne G & Darby, Michael R & Brewer, Marilynn B, 1998. "Intellectual Human Capital and the Birth of U.S. Biotechnology Enterprises," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(1), pages 290-306, March.
- Richard R. Nelson, 1982. "The Role of Knowledge in R&D Efficiency," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 97(3), pages 453-470.
- Adam B. Jaffe & Manuel Trajtenberg & Rebecca Henderson, 1993.
"Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
Oxford University Press, vol. 108(3), pages 577-598.
- Adam B. Jaffe & Manuel Trajtenberg & Rebecca Henderson, 1992. "Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations," NBER Working Papers 3993, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jaffe, A.B. & Trajtenberg, M., 1992. "Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations," Papers 14-92, Tel Aviv.
- Jaffe, Adam B, 1989. "Real Effects of Academic Research," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(5), pages 957-70, December.
- Lynne G. Zucker & Michael R. Darby & Jeff Armstrong, 1994. "Intellectual Capital and the Firm: The Technology of Geographically Localized Knowledge Spillovers," NBER Working Papers 4946, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jensen, Richard, 1992. "Dynamic patent licensing," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 349-368, September.
- Scherer, Frederic Michael, 1996. "The size distribution of profits from innovation," ZEW Discussion Papers 96-13, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Richard C. Levin & Alvin K. Klevorick & Richard R. Nelson & Sidney G. Winter, 1988. "Appropriating the Returns from Industrial R&D," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 862, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Jensen, Richard, 1992. "Reputational spillovers, innovation, licensing, and entry," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 193-212, June.
- Aghion, P. & Tirole, J., 1993.
"On the Management of Innovation,"
93-12, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Philippe Aghion & Jean Tirole, 1994. "The Management of Innovation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 109(4), pages 1185-1209.
- Beggs, A. W., 1992. "The licensing of patents under asymmetric information," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 171-191, June.
- Richard C. Levin & Alvin K. Klevorick & Richard R. Nelson & Sidney G. Winter, 1987. "Appropriating the Returns from Industrial Research and Development," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 18(3), pages 783-832.
- Macho-Stadler, Ines & Martinez-Giralt, Xavier & David Perez-Castrillo, J., 1996.
"The role of information in licensing contract design,"
Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 43-57, January.
- Macho, I. & Martinez-Giralt, X. & Perez-Castrillo, D., 1993. "The Role of Information in Licensing Contract Design," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 216.93, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
- Scherer, Frederic M. & Harhoff, Dietmar & Vopel, Katrin, 1997.
"Exploring the Tail of Patented Invention Value Distributions,"
ZEW Discussion Papers
97-30, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Dietmar Harhoff & Frederic M. Scherer & Katrin Vopel, 1997. "Exploring the Tail of Patented Invention Value Distributions," CIG Working Papers FS IV 97-27, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG).
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:6698. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.