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University spin-offs and the “performance premium”

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  • Dirk Czarnitzki

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  • Christian Rammer

    ()

  • Andrew Toole

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Abstract

The creation of spin-off companies is often promoted as a desirable mechanism for transferring knowledge and technologies from research organizations to the private sector for commercialization. In the promotion process, policymakers typically treat these “university” spin-offs like industry start-ups. However, when university spin-offs involve an employment transition by a researcher from the not-for-profit sector, the creation of a university spin-off is likely to impose a higher social cost than the creation of an industry start-up. To offset this higher social cost, university spin-offs must produce a larger stream of social benefits than industry start-ups, a performance premium. This paper outlines the arguments explaining why the social costs of entrepreneurship are likely to be higher for academic entrepreneurs, and empirically investigates the existence of a performance premium using a sample of German start-up companies. We find that university spin-offs exhibit a performance premium of 3.4 % points higher employment growth over industry start-ups. The analysis also shows that the performance premium varies across types of academic entrepreneurs and founders’ academic disciplines. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media New York (Outside the USA) 2014

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  • Dirk Czarnitzki & Christian Rammer & Andrew Toole, 2014. "University spin-offs and the “performance premium”," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 43(2), pages 309-326, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:43:y:2014:i:2:p:309-326
    DOI: 10.1007/s11187-013-9538-0
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    Cited by:

    1. Dorner, Matthias & Fryges, Helmut & Schopen, Kathrin, 2017. "Wages in high-tech start-ups – Do academic spin-offs pay a wage premium?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 1-18.
    2. Nora Hesse & Rolf Sternberg, 2017. "Alternative growth patterns of university spin-offs: why so many remain small?," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 953-984, September.
    3. María Jesús Rodríguez-Gulías & David Rodeiro-Pazos & Sara Fernández-López & Christian Corsi & Antonio Prencipe, 2018. "The role of venture capitalist to enhance the growth of Spanish and Italian university spin-offs," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 14(4), pages 1111-1130, December.
    4. Christian Sandström & Karl Wennberg & Martin W. Wallin & Yulia Zherlygina, 2018. "Public policy for academic entrepreneurship initiatives: a review and critical discussion," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 43(5), pages 1232-1256, October.
    5. Cacciolatti, Luca & Rosli, Ainurul & Ruiz-Alba, José L. & Chang, Jane, 2020. "Strategic alliances and firm performance in startups with a social mission," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 106-117.
    6. Mario BENASSI & Matteo LANDONI & Francesco RENTOCCHINI, 2017. "University Management Practices and Academic Spin-offs," Departmental Working Papers 2017-11, Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods at Università degli Studi di Milano.
    7. Marius Tuft Mathisen & Einar Rasmussen, 2019. "The development, growth, and performance of university spin-offs: a critical review," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 44(6), pages 1891-1938, December.
    8. Andrew A. Toole & Dirk Czarnitzki & Christian Rammer, 2015. "University research alliances, absorptive capacity, and the contribution of startups to employment growth," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(5), pages 532-549, July.
    9. Joon Hyung Cho & So Young Sohn, 2017. "Competing risk model for predicting stabilization period of university spin-off ventures," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 777-796, September.
    10. Francisco Javier Miranda & Antonio Chamorro & Sergio Rubio, 2018. "Re-thinking university spin-off: a critical literature review and a research agenda," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 43(4), pages 1007-1038, August.
    11. Mark R. Ayoub & Sandra Gottschalk & Bettina Müller, 2017. "Impact of public seed-funding on academic spin-offs," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 42(5), pages 1100-1124, October.
    12. Daniel Fackler & Claus Schnabel & Alexandra Schmucker, 2016. "Spinoffs in Germany: characteristics, survival, and the role of their parents," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 46(1), pages 93-114, January.
    13. Carolin Bock & Alexander Huber & Svenja Jarchow, 2018. "Growth factors of research-based spin-offs and the role of venture capital investing," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 43(5), pages 1375-1409, October.
    14. Nora Hesse, 2013. "Longer is not necessarily better - University Career Level and Job Creation of Academic Entrepreneurs in Germany," ERSA conference papers ersa13p960, European Regional Science Association.
    15. Jeremy Hall & Stelvia Matos & Vernon Bachor, 2019. "From green technology development to green innovation: inducing regulatory adoption of pathogen detection technology for sustainable forestry," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 52(4), pages 877-889, April.
    16. Elisa Salvador & Cristina Marullo & Andrea Piccaluga, 2019. "Determinants of growth in research spin-offs: a resource-based perspective," Post-Print hal-02336465, HAL.
    17. Helmut Fryges & Mike Wright, 2014. "The origin of spin-offs: a typology of corporate and academic spin-offs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 43(2), pages 245-259, August.
    18. Bollmann, Tobias, 2018. "Unternehmensgründungen und Hochschulen: Eine Analyse der Bedeutung von universitärer Entrepreneurship-Bildung und Clustermitgliedschaften auf regionale Unternehmensgründungen," Arbeitspapiere 180, University of Münster, Institute for Cooperatives.
    19. Joon Hyung Cho & So Young Sohn, 0. "Competing risk model for predicting stabilization period of university spin-off ventures," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 0, pages 1-20.
    20. Zabara, Tatiana, 2019. "Evolution of entrepreneurial teams in technology-based new ventures," Other publications TiSEM cc09d065-3811-47b6-9c93-8, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    21. Stefan Marc Hossinger & Xiangyu Chen & Arndt Werner, 2020. "Drivers, barriers and success factors of academic spin-offs: a systematic literature review," Management Review Quarterly, Springer, vol. 70(1), pages 97-134, February.
    22. Qiantao Zhang & Niall G. MacKenzie & Dylan Jones-Evans & Robert Huggins, 2016. "Leveraging knowledge as a competitive asset? The intensity, performance and structure of universities’ entrepreneurial knowledge exchange activities at a regional level," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 47(3), pages 657-675, October.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Academic entrepreneurship; Start-ups; Firm performance; Technology transfer; Open science; University spin-off policy; Human capital; Social capital; L25; L26; J24;

    JEL classification:

    • L25 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Performance
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity

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