University capabilities in facilitating entrepreneurship: A longitudinal study of spin-off ventures at mid-range universities
This paper investigated how universities facilitate the process of spin-off venture formation based on academic research. Building on a capability perspective, we add to the literature on university characteristics and resources by exploring how the university context impacts the entrepreneurial process. We based our study on two mid-range universities and followed the start-up process of four spin-off ventures. Based on the results of our longitudinal study, we propose a set of three university capabilities that facilitate the venture-formation process: (1) creating new paths of action, (2) balancing both academic and commercial interests, and (3) integrating new resources. Each capability is particularly important for specific phases in the venturing process. Our findings suggest that these capabilities are dependent on prior spin-off experience and reside within several actors both inside and outside of the university. Furthermore, universities with weaknesses in the identified areas can take strategic action to develop these capabilities to some degree.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Richard R. Nelson, 2003.
"The Market Economy, and the Scientific Commons,"
LEM Papers Series
2003/24, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
- Wright, Mike & Clarysse, Bart & Lockett, Andy & Knockaert, Mirjam, 2008. "Mid-range universities' linkages with industry: Knowledge types and the role of intermediaries," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 1205-1223, September.
- Jeannette Colyvas & Michael Crow & Annetine Gelijns & Roberto Mazzoleni & Richard R. Nelson & Nathan Rosenberg & Bhaven N. Sampat, 2002. "How Do University Inventions Get Into Practice?," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 48(1), pages 61-72, January.
- Nicos Nicolaou & Sue Birley, 2003. "Social Networks in Organizational Emergence: The University Spinout Phenomenon," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 49(12), pages 1702-1725, December.
- Shaker A. Zahra & Harry J. Sapienza & Per Davidsson, 2006. "Entrepreneurship and Dynamic Capabilities: A Review, Model and Research Agenda," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(4), pages 917-955, 06.
- Thursby, Jerry G & Jensen, Richard & Thursby, Marie C, 2001. " Objectives, Characteristics and Outcomes of University Licensing: A Survey of Major U.S. Universities," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 26(1-2), pages 59-72, January.
- Grandi, Alessandro & Grimaldi, Rosa, 2003. " Exploring the Networking Characteristics of New Venture Founding Teams," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 21(4), pages 329-41, December.
- Siegel, Donald S. & Waldman, David & Link, Albert, 2003. "Assessing the impact of organizational practices on the relative productivity of university technology transfer offices: an exploratory study," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 27-48, January.
- Lockett, Andy & Wright, Mike, 2005. "Resources, capabilities, risk capital and the creation of university spin-out companies," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1043-1057, September.
- Goldfarb, Brent & Henrekson, Magnus, 2003. "Bottom-up versus top-down policies towards the commercialization of university intellectual property," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 639-658, April.
- Céline Druilhe & Elizabeth Garnsey, 2004. "Do Academic Spin-Outs Differ and Does it Matter?," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 29(3_4), pages 269-285, 08.
- Wright, Mike & Lockett, Andy & Clarysse, Bart & Binks, Martin, 2006. "University spin-out companies and venture capital," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 481-501, May.
- Jean-Jacques Degroof & Edward B. Roberts, 2004. "Overcoming Weak Entrepreneurial Infrastructures for Academic Spin-Off Ventures," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 29(3_4), pages 327-352, 08.
- Narayanan, V.K. & Yang, Yi & Zahra, Shaker A., 2009. "Corporate venturing and value creation: A review and proposed framework," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 58-76, February.
- Rothaermel, Frank T. & Thursby, Marie, 2005. "Incubator firm failure or graduation?: The role of university linkages," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1076-1090, September.
- Frank T. Rothaermel & Shanti D. Agung & Lin Jiang, 2007. "University entrepreneurship: a taxonomy of the literature," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(4), pages 691-791, August.
- Argyres, Nicholas S. & Liebeskind, Julia Porter, 1998. "Privatizing the intellectual commons: Universities and the commercialization of biotechnology," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 427-454, May.
- Powers, Joshua B. & McDougall, Patricia P., 2005. "University start-up formation and technology licensing with firms that go public: a resource-based view of academic entrepreneurship," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 291-311, May.
- Di Gregorio, Dante & Shane, Scott, 2003. "Why do some universities generate more start-ups than others?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 209-227, February.
- Mustar, Philippe & Renault, Marie & Colombo, Massimo G. & Piva, Evila & Fontes, Margarida & Lockett, Andy & Wright, Mike & Clarysse, Bart & Moray, Nathalie, 2006. "Conceptualising the heterogeneity of research-based spin-offs: A multi-dimensional taxonomy," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 289-308, March.
- Mike Wright & Sue Birley & Simon Mosey, 2004. "Entrepreneurship and University Technology Transfer," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 29(3_4), pages 235-246, 08.
- Harmon, Brian & Ardishvili, Alexander & Cardozo, Richard & Elder, Tait & Leuthold, John & Parshall, John & Raghian, Michael & Smith, Donald, 1997. "Mapping the university technology transfer process," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 12(6), pages 423-434, November.
- Franklin, Stephen J & Wright, Mike & Lockett, Andy, 2001. " Academic and Surrogate Entrepreneurs in University Spin-Out Companies," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 26(1-2), pages 127-41, January.
- Tina C. Ambos & Kristiina Mäkelä & Julian Birkinshaw & Pablo D'Este, 2008. "When Does University Research Get Commercialized? Creating Ambidexterity in Research Institutions," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(8), pages 1424-1447, December.
- O'Shea, Rory P. & Allen, Thomas J. & Chevalier, Arnaud & Roche, Frank, 2005. "Entrepreneurial orientation, technology transfer and spinoff performance of U.S. universities," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 994-1009, September.
- Rory O’Shea & Harveen Chugh & Thomas Allen, 2008. "Determinants and consequences of university spinoff activity: a conceptual framework," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 33(6), pages 653-666, December.
- B. Clarysse & M. Wright & A. Lockett & E. Van De Velde & A. Vohora, 2004.
"Spinning Out New Ventures: A Typology Of Incubation Strategies From European Research Institutions,"
Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium
04/228, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
- Clarysse, Bart & Wright, Mike & Lockett, Andy & Van de Velde, Els & Vohora, Ajay, 2005. "Spinning out new ventures: a typology of incubation strategies from European research institutions," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 183-216, March.
- Ans Heirman & Bart Clarysse, 2004. "How and Why do Research-Based Start-Ups Differ at Founding? A Resource-Based Configurational Perspective," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 29(3_4), pages 247-268, 08.
- Marie Thursby & Richard Jensen, 2001. "Proofs and Prototypes for Sale: The Licensing of University Inventions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(1), pages 240-259, March.
- Moray, Nathalie & Clarysse, Bart, 2005. "Institutional change and resource endowments to science-based entrepreneurial firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1010-1027, September.
- Shaker A. Zahra & Els Van de Velde & B�rbara Larra�eta, 2007. "Knowledge conversion capability and the performance of corporate and university spin-offs," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(4), pages 569-608, August.
- Gideon D. Markman & Donald S. Siegel & Mike Wright, 2008. "Research and Technology Commercialization," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(8), pages 1401-1423, December.
- Colm O’Gorman & Orla Byrne & Dipti Pandya, 2008. "How scientists commercialise new knowledge via entrepreneurship," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 23-43, February.
- Scott Shane & Toby Stuart, 2002. "Organizational Endowments and the Performance of University Start-ups," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 48(1), pages 154-170, January.
- Murray, Fiona, 2004. "The role of academic inventors in entrepreneurial firms: sharing the laboratory life," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 643-659, May.
- Vohora, Ajay & Wright, Mike & Lockett, Andy, 2004. "Critical junctures in the development of university high-tech spinout companies," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 147-175, January.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:respol:v:39:y:2010:i:5:p:602-612. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.