Scoping paper: Developing University Innovation Capacity: How can innovation policy effectively harness universities’ capability to promote high-growth technology businesses?
Some universities and departments have been very successful in stimulating university spin-off firms (USOs). This has persuaded policy makers and university administrators to devote considerable resources to improve universities' capabilities to promote USOs, but with little tangible results. Related research has considered why some universities contributes more to business innovation than others, but whether the majority of universities can become innovation hotbeds remains an open question. This paper takes a novel interdisciplinary approach integrating insights from two separate literatures, academic entrepreneurship and university management. We start by taking the firm’s perspective and seek to understand the challenges faced by USOs and how universities can assist these firms in developing their entrepreneurial competencies. The structure and main purpose of universities are very different from that of new technology businesses and the transition from being an academic research activity to become a commercial business activity poses challenges both for the university and the USO. Much research on universities’ entrepreneurial capability focuses on ‘what’ universities can do to support USOs at the expense of ‘why’ universities’ might choose to promote USOs when they are under many intense competing demands from outside. We explore not only what universities can do to support USOs, but also how universities experience USOs’ support demands, and the circumstances under which universities can develop capability to promote USOs. We address the barriers that arise between universities and USOs and discuss mitigating factors which support the competencies of USOs whilst at the same time meet the different university stakeholders’ needs.
|Date of creation:||Oct 2013|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Postboks 1108 Blindern N-0317 Oslo|
Phone: 22 84 16 00
Fax: : 22 84 16 01
Web page: http://www.tik.uio.no/Innovation
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Colombo, Massimo G. & Piva, Evila, 2012. "Firms’ genetic characteristics and competence-enlarging strategies: A comparison between academic and non-academic high-tech start-ups," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 79-92.
- Jain, Sanjay & George, Gerard & Maltarich, Mark, 2009. "Academics or entrepreneurs? Investigating role identity modification of university scientists involved in commercialization activity," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 922-935, July.
- Marc Gruber & Ian C. MacMillan & James D. Thompson, 2008. "Look Before You Leap: Market Opportunity Identification in Emerging Technology Firms," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 54(9), pages 1652-1665, September.
- Cornelius Mueller & Paul Westhead & Mike Wright, 2012. "Formal venture capital acquisition: can entrepreneurs compensate for the spatial proximity benefits of South East England and ‘star’ golden-triangle universities?," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 44(2), pages 281-296, February.
- Michael M. Crow & Barry L. Bozeman, 1987. "A new typology for R&D laboratories: Implications for policy analysts," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 6(3), pages 328-341.
- Bruneel, Johan & D'Este, Pablo & Salter, Ammon, 2010. "Investigating the factors that diminish the barriers to university-industry collaboration," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(7), pages 858-868, September.
- Vohora, Ajay & Wright, Mike & Lockett, Andy, 2004. "Critical junctures in the development of university high-tech spinout companies," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 147-175, January.
- Link, Albert N. & Scott, John T., 2003. "U.S. science parks: the diffusion of an innovation and its effects on the academic missions of universities," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 21(9), pages 1323-1356, November.
- Maribel Guerrero & David Urbano, 2012. "The development of an entrepreneurial university," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 37(1), pages 43-74, February.
- Clarysse, Bart & Tartari, Valentina & Salter, Ammon, 2011. "The impact of entrepreneurial capacity, experience and organizational support on academic entrepreneurship," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(8), pages 1084-1093, October.
- Di Gregorio, Dante & Shane, Scott, 2003. "Why do some universities generate more start-ups than others?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 209-227, February.
- O'Shea, Rory P. & Allen, Thomas J. & Chevalier, Arnaud & Roche, Frank, 2005. "Entrepreneurial orientation, technology transfer and spinoff performance of U.S. universities," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 994-1009, September.
- Jeffery S. McMullen & Dimo Dimov, 2013. "Time and the Entrepreneurial Journey: The Problems and Promise of Studying Entrepreneurship as a Process," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(8), pages 1481-1512, December.
- Goldfarb, Brent & Henrekson, Magnus, 2003. "Bottom-up versus top-down policies towards the commercialization of university intellectual property," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 639-658, April.
- Richard Harrison & Claire Leitch, 2010. "Voodoo Institution or Entrepreneurial University? Spin-off Companies, the Entrepreneurial System and Regional Development in the UK," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(9), pages 1241-1262.
- Powers, Joshua B. & McDougall, Patricia P., 2005. "University start-up formation and technology licensing with firms that go public: a resource-based view of academic entrepreneurship," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 291-311, May.
- Henry Chesbrough & Richard S. Rosenbloom, 2002. "The role of the business model in capturing value from innovation: evidence from Xerox Corporation's technology spin-off companies," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 11(3), pages 529-555, June.
- Moray, Nathalie & Clarysse, Bart, 2005. "Institutional change and resource endowments to science-based entrepreneurial firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1010-1027, September.
- Scott Shane & Toby Stuart, 2002. "Organizational Endowments and the Performance of University Start-ups," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 48(1), pages 154-170, January.
- Murray, Fiona, 2004. "The role of academic inventors in entrepreneurial firms: sharing the laboratory life," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 643-659, May.
- Gupta, Samir & Cadeaux, Jack & Dubelaar, Chris, 2006. "Uncovering multiple champion roles in implementing new-technology ventures," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 59(5), pages 549-563, May.
- B. Clarysse & M. Wright & E. Vandevelde, 2010.
"Entrepreneurial Origin, Technological Knowledge and the Growth of Spin-off Companies,"
Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium
10/693, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
- Bart Clarysse & Mike Wright & Els Van de Velde, 2011. "Entrepreneurial Origin, Technological Knowledge, and the Growth of Spin‐Off Companies," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48, pages 1420-1442, 09.
- Tina C. Ambos & Kristiina Mäkelä & Julian Birkinshaw & Pablo D'Este, 2008. "When Does University Research Get Commercialized? Creating Ambidexterity in Research Institutions," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(8), pages 1424-1447, December.
- Nicos Nicolaou & Sue Birley, 2003. "Social Networks in Organizational Emergence: The University Spinout Phenomenon," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 49(12), pages 1702-1725, December.
- David Audretsch & Erik Lehmann & Susanne Warning, 2004.
"University Spillovers and New Firm Location,"
Working Papers of the Research Group Heterogenous Labor
04-13, Research Group Heterogeneous Labor, University of Konstanz/ZEW Mannheim.
- David B. Audretsch & Erik E. Lehmann & Susanne Warning, 2004. "University Spillovers and New Firm Location," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2004-02, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
- Van Looy, Bart & Landoni, Paolo & Callaert, Julie & van Pottelsberghe, Bruno & Sapsalis, Eleftherios & Debackere, Koenraad, 2011. "Entrepreneurial effectiveness of European universities: An empirical assessment of antecedents and trade-offs," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(4), pages 553-564, May.
- Delmar, Frederic & Shane, Scott, 2004. "Legitimating first: organizing activities and the survival of new ventures," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 385-410, May.
- Krabel, Stefan & Mueller, Pamela, 2009. "What drives scientists to start their own company?: An empirical investigation of Max Planck Society scientists," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 947-956, July.
- Helen Lawton Smith & Sharmistha Bagchi-Sen, 2012. "The research university, entrepreneurship and regional development: Research propositions and current evidence," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(5-6), pages 383-404, June.
- Rasmussen, Einar & Borch, Odd Jarl, 2010. "University capabilities in facilitating entrepreneurship: A longitudinal study of spin-off ventures at mid-range universities," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 602-612, June.
- Catherine Renault, 2006. "Academic Capitalism and University Incentives for Faculty Entrepreneurship," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 31(2), pages 227-239, 03.
- Landry, Rejean & Amara, Nabil & Rherrad, Imad, 2006. "Why are some university researchers more likely to create spin-offs than others? Evidence from Canadian universities," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 1599-1615, December.
- Frank T. Rothaermel & Shanti D. Agung & Lin Jiang, 2007. "University entrepreneurship: a taxonomy of the literature," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(4), pages 691-791, August.
- Marie Thursby & Richard Jensen, 2001. "Proofs and Prototypes for Sale: The Licensing of University Inventions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(1), pages 240-259, March.
- Henrekson, Magnus & Rosenberg, Nathan, 2000.
"Designing Efficient Institutions for Science-Based Entrepreneurship: Lessons from the US and Sweden,"
SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance
410, Stockholm School of Economics.
- Henrekson, Magnus & Rosenberg, Nathan, 2001. "Designing Efficient Institutions for Science-Based Entrepreneurship: Lessons from the US and Sweden," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 26(3), pages 207-31, June.
- Clarysse, Bart & Moray, Nathalie, 2004. "A process study of entrepreneurial team formation: the case of a research-based spin-off," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 55-79, January.
- Einar Rasmussen & Simon Mosey & Mike Wright, 2011. "The Evolution of Entrepreneurial Competencies: A Longitudinal Study of University Spin‐Off Venture Emergence," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48, pages 1314-1345, 09.
- Shaker A. Zahra & Els Van de Velde & Bárbara Larrañeta, 2007. "Knowledge conversion capability and the performance of corporate and university spin-offs," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(4), pages 569-608, August.
- Donald S. Siegel & Mike Wright & Andy Lockett, 2007. "The rise of entrepreneurial activity at universities: organizational and societal implications," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(4), pages 489-504, August.
- Auerswald, Philip E & Branscomb, Lewis M, 2003. "Valleys of Death and Darwinian Seas: Financing the Invention to Innovation Transition in the United States," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 28(3-4), pages 227-39, August.
- Kenney, Martin & Richard Goe, W., 2004. "The role of social embeddedness in professorial entrepreneurship: a comparison of electrical engineering and computer science at UC Berkeley and Stanford," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 691-707, July.
- David C. Mowery & Bhaven N. Sampat, 2005. "The Bayh-Dole Act of 1980 and University--Industry Technology Transfer: A Model for Other OECD Governments?," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 30(2_2), pages 115-127, 01.
- Brush, Candida G. & Manolova, Tatiana S. & Edelman, Linda F., 2008. "Properties of emerging organizations: An empirical test," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 23(5), pages 547-566, September.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:tik:inowpp:20131007. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (H&kon Normann)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.