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University spinoffs and the 'performance premium'

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  • Czarnitzki, Dirk
  • Rammer, Christian
  • Toole, Andrew A.

Abstract

The creation of spinoff companies is often promoted as a desirable mechanism for transferring knowledge and technologies from research organizations to the private sector for commercialization. In the promotion process, policymakers typically treat these 'university' spinoffs like industry startups. However, when university spinoffs involve an employment transition by a researcher out of the not-for-profit sector, the creation of a university spinoff is likely to impose a higher social cost than the creation of an industry startup. To offset this higher social cost, university spinoffs must produce a larger stream of social benefits than industry startups, a performance premium. This paper outlines the arguments why the social costs of entrepreneurship are likely to be higher for academic entrepreneurs and empirically investigates the existence of a performance premium using a sample of German startup companies. We find that university spinoffs exhibit a performance premium of 3.4 percentage points higher employment growth over industry startups. The analysis also shows that the performance premium varies across types of academic entrepreneurs and founders' academic disciplines.

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  • Czarnitzki, Dirk & Rammer, Christian & Toole, Andrew A., 2013. "University spinoffs and the 'performance premium'," ZEW Discussion Papers 13-004, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:13004
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    Cited by:

    1. María Jesús Rodríguez-Gulías & David Rodeiro-Pazos & Sara Fernández-López & Christian Corsi & Antonio Prencipe, 2018. "The role of venture capitalist to enhance the growth of Spanish and Italian university spin-offs," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 14(4), pages 1111-1130, December.
    2. Cacciolatti, Luca & Rosli, Ainurul & Ruiz-Alba, José L. & Chang, Jane, 2020. "Strategic alliances and firm performance in startups with a social mission," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 106-117.
    3. Andrew A. Toole & Dirk Czarnitzki & Christian Rammer, 2015. "University research alliances, absorptive capacity, and the contribution of startups to employment growth," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(5), pages 532-549, July.
    4. Mark R. Ayoub & Sandra Gottschalk & Bettina Müller, 2017. "Impact of public seed-funding on academic spin-offs," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 42(5), pages 1100-1124, October.
    5. Daniel Fackler & Claus Schnabel & Alexandra Schmucker, 2016. "Spinoffs in Germany: characteristics, survival, and the role of their parents," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 46(1), pages 93-114, January.
    6. Carolin Bock & Alexander Huber & Svenja Jarchow, 2018. "Growth factors of research-based spin-offs and the role of venture capital investing," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 43(5), pages 1375-1409, October.
    7. Bollmann, Tobias, 2018. "Unternehmensgründungen und Hochschulen: Eine Analyse der Bedeutung von universitärer Entrepreneurship-Bildung und Clustermitgliedschaften auf regionale Unternehmensgründungen," Arbeitspapiere 180, University of Münster, Institute for Cooperatives.
    8. Mario BENASSI & Matteo LANDONI & Francesco RENTOCCHINI, 2017. "University Management Practices and Academic Spin-offs," Departmental Working Papers 2017-11, Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods at Università degli Studi di Milano.
    9. Marius Tuft Mathisen & Einar Rasmussen, 2019. "The development, growth, and performance of university spin-offs: a critical review," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 44(6), pages 1891-1938, December.
    10. Francisco Javier Miranda & Antonio Chamorro & Sergio Rubio, 2018. "Re-thinking university spin-off: a critical literature review and a research agenda," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 43(4), pages 1007-1038, August.
    11. Nora Hesse & Rolf Sternberg, 2017. "Alternative growth patterns of university spin-offs: why so many remain small?," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 953-984, September.
    12. Helmut Fryges & Mike Wright, 2014. "The origin of spin-offs: a typology of corporate and academic spin-offs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 43(2), pages 245-259, August.
    13. Stefan Marc Hossinger & Xiangyu Chen & Arndt Werner, 2020. "Drivers, barriers and success factors of academic spin-offs: a systematic literature review," Management Review Quarterly, Springer, vol. 70(1), pages 97-134, February.
    14. Qiantao Zhang & Niall G. MacKenzie & Dylan Jones-Evans & Robert Huggins, 2016. "Leveraging knowledge as a competitive asset? The intensity, performance and structure of universities’ entrepreneurial knowledge exchange activities at a regional level," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 47(3), pages 657-675, October.
    15. Dorner, Matthias & Fryges, Helmut & Schopen, Kathrin, 2017. "Wages in high-tech start-ups – Do academic spin-offs pay a wage premium?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 1-18.
    16. Nora Hesse, 2013. "Longer is not necessarily better - University Career Level and Job Creation of Academic Entrepreneurs in Germany," ERSA conference papers ersa13p960, European Regional Science Association.
    17. Jeremy Hall & Stelvia Matos & Vernon Bachor, 2019. "From green technology development to green innovation: inducing regulatory adoption of pathogen detection technology for sustainable forestry," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 52(4), pages 877-889, April.
    18. Joon Hyung Cho & So Young Sohn, 0. "Competing risk model for predicting stabilization period of university spin-off ventures," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 0, pages 1-20.
    19. Zabara, Tatiana, 2019. "Evolution of entrepreneurial teams in technology-based new ventures," Other publications TiSEM cc09d065-3811-47b6-9c93-8, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    20. Christian Sandström & Karl Wennberg & Martin W. Wallin & Yulia Zherlygina, 2018. "Public policy for academic entrepreneurship initiatives: a review and critical discussion," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 43(5), pages 1232-1256, October.
    21. Joon Hyung Cho & So Young Sohn, 2017. "Competing risk model for predicting stabilization period of university spin-off ventures," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 777-796, September.
    22. Elisa Salvador & Cristina Marullo & Andrea Piccaluga, 2019. "Determinants of growth in research spin-offs: a resource-based perspective," Post-Print hal-02336465, HAL.

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    Keywords

    Academic Entrepreneurship; Startups; Firm performance; Technology Transfer; Open Science; University Spinoff Policy; Human Capital; Social Capital;

    JEL classification:

    • L25 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Performance
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity

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