IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/sae/sagope/v10y2020i2p2158244020931116.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Analyzing the Effects of Institutional- and Ecosystem-Level Variables on University Spin-Off Performance

Author

Listed:
  • F. I. Vega-Gómez
  • F. J. Miranda González
  • J. Pérez-Mayo

Abstract

Academic entrepreneurship has been one of the main research fields over the past 20 years, specifically due to the interest of policy makers in this topic. Initially, this interest focused on the creation of university spin-off (USO) firms; although given the new circumstances of the university and its context, there is a need to steer the research topic toward survival. This is because the simple creation of USOs, without their being able to survive or create value, is useless. This article focuses on one of the determining factors of the success of USOs, as measured by employment and sales growth: the influence of institutional- and ecosystem-level variables. Through a backward sequential process, our results show that the business size and the public support in the field of training and bureaucracy are the main elements that affect success.

Suggested Citation

  • F. I. Vega-Gómez & F. J. Miranda González & J. Pérez-Mayo, 2020. "Analyzing the Effects of Institutional- and Ecosystem-Level Variables on University Spin-Off Performance," SAGE Open, , vol. 10(2), pages 21582440209, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:sae:sagope:v:10:y:2020:i:2:p:2158244020931116
    DOI: 10.1177/2158244020931116
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2158244020931116
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Lam, Alice, 2011. "What motivates academic scientists to engage in research commercialization: ‘Gold’, ‘ribbon’ or ‘puzzle’?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(10), pages 1354-1368.
    2. Vohora, Ajay & Wright, Mike & Lockett, Andy, 2004. "Critical junctures in the development of university high-tech spinout companies," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 147-175, January.
    3. Jorge Niosi, 2006. "Success Factors in Canadian Academic Spin-Offs," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 31(4), pages 451-457, July.
    4. Friedman, Joseph & Silberman, Jonathan, 2003. "University Technology Transfer: Do Incentives, Management, and Location Matter?," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 17-30, January.
    5. Bart Clarysse & Mike Wright & Els Van de Velde, 2011. "Entrepreneurial Origin, Technological Knowledge, and the Growth of Spin‐Off Companies," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48, pages 1420-1442, September.
    6. Michele Meoli & Silvio Vismara, 2016. "University support and the creation of technology and non-technology academic spin-offs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 47(2), pages 345-362, August.
    7. Jeff S. Armstrong & Michael R. Darby & Lynne G. Zucker, 2003. "Commercializing knowledge: university science, knowledge capture and firm performance in biotechnology," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, issue Sep, pages 149-170.
    8. Etzkowitz, Henry & Webster, Andrew & Gebhardt, Christiane & Terra, Branca Regina Cantisano, 2000. "The future of the university and the university of the future: evolution of ivory tower to entrepreneurial paradigm," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 313-330, February.
    9. Murray, Fiona, 2004. "The role of academic inventors in entrepreneurial firms: sharing the laboratory life," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 643-659, May.
    10. Etzkowitz, Henry, 1998. "The norms of entrepreneurial science: cognitive effects of the new university-industry linkages," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(8), pages 823-833, December.
    11. Rothaermel, Frank T. & Thursby, Marie, 2005. "University-incubator firm knowledge flows: assessing their impact on incubator firm performance," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 305-320, April.
    12. Mircea Epure & Diego Prior & Christian Serarols, 2016. "Assessing Technology-Based Spin-offs from University Support Units," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 50(3), pages 411-428, March.
    13. Siegel, Donald S. & Westhead, Paul & Wright, Mike, 2003. "Assessing the impact of university science parks on research productivity: exploratory firm-level evidence from the United Kingdom," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 21(9), pages 1357-1369, November.
    14. Carolin Bock & Alexander Huber & Svenja Jarchow, 2018. "Growth factors of research-based spin-offs and the role of venture capital investing," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 43(5), pages 1375-1409, October.
    15. María Jesús Rodríguez-Gulías & Sara Fernández-López & David Rodeiro-Pazos, 2016. "Growth determinants in entrepreneurship: A longitudinal study of Spanish technology-based university spin-offs," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 14(3), pages 323-344, September.
    16. Marius Tuft Mathisen & Einar Rasmussen, 2019. "The development, growth, and performance of university spin-offs: a critical review," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 44(6), pages 1891-1938, December.
    17. Mariluz Fernández-Alles & Carmen Camelo-Ordaz & Noelia Franco-Leal, 2015. "Key resources and actors for the evolution of academic spin-offs," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 40(6), pages 976-1002, December.
    18. Clarysse, Bart & Wright, Mike & Lockett, Andy & Van de Velde, Els & Vohora, Ajay, 2005. "Spinning out new ventures: a typology of incubation strategies from European research institutions," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 183-216, March.
    19. V. Bessière & Marie Gomez Breysse & K. Messeghem & A. Ramaroson & S. Sammut, 2017. "Drivers of growth: the case of French academic spin-off," Post-Print hal-01995316, HAL.
    20. Goldfarb, Brent & Henrekson, Magnus, 2003. "Bottom-up versus top-down policies towards the commercialization of university intellectual property," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 639-658, April.
    21. Wennberg, Karl & Wiklund, Johan & Wright, Mike, 2011. "The effectiveness of university knowledge spillovers: Performance differences between university spinoffs and corporate spinoffs," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(8), pages 1128-1143, October.
    22. María Jesús Rodríguez-Gulías & David Rodeiro-Pazos & Sara Fernández-López, 2016. "Is university-based entrepreneurship successful? The Spanish case," International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 8(4), pages 373-390.
    23. Ans Heirman & Bart Clarysse, 2004. "How and Why do Research-Based Start-Ups Differ at Founding? A Resource-Based Configurational Perspective," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 29(3_4), pages 247-268, August.
    24. Federico Munari & Laura Toschi, 2011. "Do venture capitalists have a bias against investment in academic spin-offs? Evidence from the micro- and nanotechnology sector in the UK," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 20(2), pages 397-432, April.
    25. Roland Helm & Oliver Mauroner, 2007. "Success of research-based spin-offs. State-of-the-art and guidelines for further research," Review of Managerial Science, Springer, vol. 1(3), pages 237-270, November.
    26. Maribel Guerrero & David Urbano & Alain Fayolle & Magnus Klofsten & Sarfraz Mian, 2016. "Entrepreneurial universities : emerging models in the new social and economic landscape," Post-Print hal-02313440, HAL.
    27. Walter, Achim & Auer, Michael & Ritter, Thomas, 2006. "The impact of network capabilities and entrepreneurial orientation on university spin-off performance," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 541-567, July.
    28. Ibrahim Al-Jubari & Arif Hassan & Francisco Liñán, 2019. "Entrepreneurial intention among University students in Malaysia: integrating self-determination theory and the theory of planned behavior," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 15(4), pages 1323-1342, December.
    29. Colombo, Massimo G. & Grilli, Luca, 2010. "On growth drivers of high-tech start-ups: Exploring the role of founders' human capital and venture capital," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 610-626, November.
    30. Simone Scagnelli & Lorenzo Vasile & Mico Apostolov, 2019. "Survival Drivers Of Post-Incubated Start-Ups: The Effect Of Academic Governance," International Journal of Innovation Management (ijim), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 23(07), pages 1-20, October.
    31. Mike Wright & Keith M. Hmieleski & Donald S. Siegel & Michael D. Ensley, 2007. "The Role of Human Capital in Technological Entrepreneurship," Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, , vol. 31(6), pages 791-806, November.
    32. Di Gregorio, Dante & Shane, Scott, 2003. "Why do some universities generate more start-ups than others?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 209-227, February.
    33. Rothaermel, Frank T. & Thursby, Marie, 2005. "Incubator firm failure or graduation?: The role of university linkages," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1076-1090, September.
    34. Natalia Budyldina, 2018. "Entrepreneurial universities and regional contribution," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 14(2), pages 265-277, June.
    35. Scott Shane & Toby Stuart, 2002. "Organizational Endowments and the Performance of University Start-ups," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 48(1), pages 154-170, January.
    36. Wright, Mike & Lockett, Andy & Clarysse, Bart & Binks, Martin, 2006. "University spin-out companies and venture capital," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 481-501, May.
    37. Muscio, Alessandro & Quaglione, Davide & Ramaciotti, Laura, 2016. "The effects of university rules on spinoff creation: The case of academia in Italy," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(7), pages 1386-1396.
    38. Siegel, Donald S & Westhead, Paul & Wright, Mike, 2003. "Science Parks and the Performance of New Technology-Based Firms: A Review of Recent U.K. Evidence and an Agenda for Future Research," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 177-184, March.
    39. Donato Iacobucci & Alessandra Micozzi, 2015. "How to evaluate the impact of academic spin-offs on local development: an empirical analysis of the Italian case," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 40(3), pages 434-452, June.
    40. Albert N. Link & Donald S. Siegel & Barry Bozeman, 2007. "An empirical analysis of the propensity of academics to engage in informal university technology transfer ," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(4), pages 641-655, August.
    41. Krabel, Stefan & Mueller, Pamela, 2009. "What drives scientists to start their own company?: An empirical investigation of Max Planck Society scientists," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 947-956, July.
    42. Veronique Bessière & Marie Gomez-Breysse & Karim Messeghem & Andry Ramaroson & Sylvie Sammut, 2017. "Drivers of growth: the case of French academic spin-off," International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 21(4/5), pages 318-342.
    43. O'Shea, Rory P. & Allen, Thomas J. & Chevalier, Arnaud & Roche, Frank, 2005. "Entrepreneurial orientation, technology transfer and spinoff performance of U.S. universities," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 994-1009, September.
    44. Francesca Lotti & Enrico Santarelli & Marco Vivarelli, 2003. "Does Gibrat's Law hold among young, small firms?," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 213-235, August.
    45. Phan, Phillip H. & Siegel, Donald S., 2006. "The Effectiveness of University Technology Transfer," Foundations and Trends(R) in Entrepreneurship, now publishers, vol. 2(2), pages 77-144, November.
    46. Maribel Guerrero & David Urbano & Alain Fayolle & Magnus Klofsten & Sarfraz Mian, 2016. "Entrepreneurial universities: emerging models in the new social and economic landscape," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 47(3), pages 551-563, October.
    47. Grimaldi, Rosa & Kenney, Martin & Siegel, Donald S. & Wright, Mike, 2011. "30 years after Bayh-Dole: Reassessing academic entrepreneurship," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(8), pages 1045-1057, October.
    48. Lockett, Andy & Wright, Mike, 2005. "Resources, capabilities, risk capital and the creation of university spin-out companies," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1043-1057, September.
    49. Riccardo Fini & Rosa Grimaldi & Maurizio Sobrero, 2009. "Factors fostering academics to start up new ventures: an assessment of Italian founders’ incentives," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 34(4), pages 380-402, August.
    50. Moray, Nathalie & Clarysse, Bart, 2005. "Institutional change and resource endowments to science-based entrepreneurial firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1010-1027, September.
    51. Fischer, Bruno Brandão & Moraes, Gustavo Hermínio Salati Marcondes de & Schaeffer, Paola Rücker, 2019. "Universities' institutional settings and academic entrepreneurship: Notes from a developing country," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 147(C), pages 243-252.
    52. Maribel Guerrero & David Urbano & Alain Fayolle & Magnus Klofsten & Sarfraz Mian, 2016. "Entrepreneurial universities : emerging models in the new social and economic landscape," Post-Print hal-01988263, HAL.
    53. Berbegal-Mirabent, Jasmina & Lafuente, Esteban & Solé, Francesc, 2013. "The pursuit of knowledge transfer activities: An efficiency analysis of Spanish universities," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 66(10), pages 2051-2059.
    54. Wai Fong Boh & Uzi De-Haan & Robert Strom, 2016. "University technology transfer through entrepreneurship: faculty and students in spinoffs," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 41(4), pages 661-669, August.
    55. Lockett, Andy & Siegel, Donald & Wright, Mike & Ensley, Michael D., 2005. "The creation of spin-off firms at public research institutions: Managerial and policy implications," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 981-993, September.
    56. Christopher S. Hayter, 2016. "A trajectory of early-stage spinoff success: the role of knowledge intermediaries within an entrepreneurial university ecosystem," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 47(3), pages 633-656, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Christopher S. Hayter & Andrew J. Nelson & Stephanie Zayed & Alan C. O’Connor, 2018. "Conceptualizing academic entrepreneurship ecosystems: a review, analysis and extension of the literature," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 43(4), pages 1039-1082, August.
    2. Gümüsay, Ali Aslan & Bohné, Thomas Marc, 2018. "Individual and organizational inhibitors to the development of entrepreneurial competencies in universities," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 363-378.
    3. Christian Sandström & Karl Wennberg & Martin W. Wallin & Yulia Zherlygina, 2018. "Public policy for academic entrepreneurship initiatives: a review and critical discussion," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 43(5), pages 1232-1256, October.
    4. Good, Matthew & Knockaert, Mirjam & Soppe, Birthe & Wright, Mike, 2019. "The technology transfer ecosystem in academia. An organizational design perspective," Technovation, Elsevier, vol. 82, pages 35-50.
    5. Marco Ferretti & Salvatore Ferri & Raffaele Fiorentino & Adele Parmentola & Alessandro Sapio, 2020. "What drives the growth of academic spin-offs? Matching academics, universities, and non-research organizations," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 16(1), pages 137-163, March.
    6. Marco Ferretti & Salvatore Ferri & Raffaele Fiorentino & Adele Parmentola & Alessandro Sapio, 2019. "Neither absent nor too present: the effects of the engagement of parent universities on the performance of academic spin-offs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 52(1), pages 153-173, January.
    7. Mariluz Fernández-Alles & Carmen Camelo-Ordaz & Noelia Franco-Leal, 2015. "Key resources and actors for the evolution of academic spin-offs," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 40(6), pages 976-1002, December.
    8. Marius Tuft Mathisen & Einar Rasmussen, 2019. "The development, growth, and performance of university spin-offs: a critical review," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 44(6), pages 1891-1938, December.
    9. Rasmussen, Einar & Borch, Odd Jarl, 2010. "University capabilities in facilitating entrepreneurship: A longitudinal study of spin-off ventures at mid-range universities," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 602-612, June.
    10. Viktor Slavtchev & Devrim Göktepe-Hultén, 2016. "Support for public research spin-offs by the parent organizations and the speed of commercialization," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 41(6), pages 1507-1525, December.
    11. María Jesús Rodríguez-Gulías & David Rodeiro-Pazos & Sara Fernández-López & Christian Corsi & Antonio Prencipe, 2018. "The role of venture capitalist to enhance the growth of Spanish and Italian university spin-offs," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 14(4), pages 1111-1130, December.
    12. Dirk Czarnitzki & Christian Rammer & Andrew Toole, 2014. "University spin-offs and the “performance premium”," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 43(2), pages 309-326, August.
    13. Samantha Bradley & Christopher Hayter & Albert Link, 2013. "Proof of Concept Centers in the United States: an exploratory look," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 38(4), pages 349-381, August.
    14. Bharat Rao & Bala Mulloth, 2017. "The Role of Universities in Encouraging Growth of Technology-Based New Ventures," International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management (IJITM), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 14(04), pages 1-22, August.
    15. Einar Rasmussen & Mike Wright, 2015. "How can universities facilitate academic spin-offs? An entrepreneurial competency perspective," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 40(5), pages 782-799, October.
    16. Annelore Huyghe & Mirjam Knockaert & Evila Piva & Mike Wright, 2016. "Are researchers deliberately bypassing the technology transfer office? An analysis of TTO awareness," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 47(3), pages 589-607, October.
    17. Carolin Bock & Christian Landau & Moritz Orendt & Maximilian Schmidt, 2018. "Are Public Financing Schemes Beneficial For University Spin-Offs And The Technology Transfer Of Innovations?," International Journal of Innovation Management (ijim), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 22(06), pages 1-30, August.
    18. Stefan Marc Hossinger & Xiangyu Chen & Arndt Werner, 2020. "Drivers, barriers and success factors of academic spin-offs: a systematic literature review," Management Review Quarterly, Springer, vol. 70(1), pages 97-134, February.
    19. Berna Beyhan & Derya Findik, 2018. "Student and graduate entrepreneurship: ambidextrous universities create more nascent entrepreneurs," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 43(5), pages 1346-1374, October.
    20. Alice Civera & Michele Meoli, 2018. "Does university prestige foster the initial growth of academic spin-offs?," Economia e Politica Industriale: Journal of Industrial and Business Economics, Springer;Associazione Amici di Economia e Politica Industriale, vol. 45(2), pages 111-142, June.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:sae:sagope:v:10:y:2020:i:2:p:2158244020931116. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (SAGE Publications). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.