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The effects of university rules on spinoff creation: The case of academia in Italy

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  • Muscio, Alessandro
  • Quaglione, Davide
  • Ramaciotti, Laura

Abstract

The economics literature provides rich evidence on the convergence between the institutional factors and individual-level characteristics influencing the involvement of academia in knowledge transfer activities and spinoff creation. However, little is known about the effects of internal university regulations on academic entrepreneurship. In the last ten years, spinoff activity from academia in Italy has been intensive and most academic institutions have policies related to the regulation of academic entrepreneurship practices, known as ‘Regolamento Spinoff’. This paper investigates the impact of the set of university rules governing the creation of spinoffs, on institutional capability to generate new ventures. Based on panel-data analysis using detailed university-level data on academic spinoffs, we identify three classes of institutionally-defined rules that can motivate faculty members to establish a spinoff company. These are: general rules and procedures; rules regulating monetary incentives; rules related to the entrepreneurial risk. We find that at least some rules pertaining to each of these three classes have some effect on spinoff creation. In particular, we find that monetary incentives play a significant role in promoting academic spinoff activity, and that overly-restrictive university rules regarding contract research have a negative effect on spinoff creation.

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  • Muscio, Alessandro & Quaglione, Davide & Ramaciotti, Laura, 2016. "The effects of university rules on spinoff creation: The case of academia in Italy," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(7), pages 1386-1396.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:respol:v:45:y:2016:i:7:p:1386-1396
    DOI: 10.1016/j.respol.2016.04.011
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    Cited by:

    1. Christopher S. Hayter & Andrew J. Nelson & Stephanie Zayed & Alan C. O’Connor, 2018. "Conceptualizing academic entrepreneurship ecosystems: a review, analysis and extension of the literature," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 43(4), pages 1039-1082, August.
    2. Giorgio Calcagnini & Germana Giombini & Paolo Liberati & Giuseppe Travaglini, 2019. "Technology transfer with search intensity and project advertising," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 44(5), pages 1529-1546, October.
    3. Razieh Nejabat & Marina Van Geenhuizen, 2019. "Entrepreneurial Risk-Taking in Sustainable Energy: University Spin-Off Firms and Market Introduction in Northwest Europe," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(24), pages 1-23, December.
    4. Muscio, Alessandro & Ramaciotti, Laura, 2019. "How does academia influence Ph.D. entrepreneurship? New insights on the entrepreneurial university," Technovation, Elsevier, vol. 82, pages 16-24.
    5. Mario BENASSI & Matteo LANDONI & Francesco RENTOCCHINI, 2017. "University Management Practices and Academic Spin-offs," Departmental Working Papers 2017-11, Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods at Università degli Studi di Milano.
    6. Francisco-Isidoro Vega-Gomez & F. Javier Miranda & Antonio Chamorro Mera & Jesús Pérez Mayo, 2018. "The Spin-Off as an Instrument of Sustainable Development: Incentives for Creating an Academic USO," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(11), pages 1-15, November.
    7. Francisco Javier Miranda & Antonio Chamorro & Sergio Rubio, 2018. "Re-thinking university spin-off: a critical literature review and a research agenda," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 43(4), pages 1007-1038, August.
    8. Miriam Flickinger & Miriam Zschoche, 2018. "Corporate divestiture and performance: an institutional view," Journal of Management & Governance, Springer;Accademia Italiana di Economia Aziendale (AIDEA), vol. 22(1), pages 111-131, March.
    9. Riccardo Fini & Kun Fu & Marius Tuft Mathisen & Einar Rasmussen & Mike Wright, 2017. "Institutional determinants of university spin-off quantity and quality: a longitudinal, multilevel, cross-country study," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 48(2), pages 361-391, February.
    10. Stefan Marc Hossinger & Xiangyu Chen & Arndt Werner, 2020. "Drivers, barriers and success factors of academic spin-offs: a systematic literature review," Management Review Quarterly, Springer, vol. 70(1), pages 97-134, February.
    11. Gümüsay, Ali Aslan & Bohné, Thomas Marc, 2018. "Individual and organizational inhibitors to the development of entrepreneurial competencies in universities," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 363-378.
    12. Erdős, Katalin, 2019. "Egyetemi vállalkozások Magyarországon - újragondolva? [University spin-off in Hungary - Rethought?]," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(3), pages 305-329.
    13. Linda H. M. van de Burgwal & Ana Dias & Eric Claassen, 2019. "Incentives for knowledge valorisation: a European benchmark," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 44(1), pages 1-20, February.
    14. Halilem, Norrin & Amara, Nabil & Olmos-Peñuela, Julia & Mohiuddin, Muhammad, 2017. "“To Own, or not to Own?” A multilevel analysis of intellectual property right policies' on academic entrepreneurship," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(8), pages 1479-1489.
    15. Weiwei Liu & Zhile Yang & Kexin Bi, 2017. "Forecasting the Acquisition of University Spin-Outs: An RBF Neural Network Approach," Complexity, Hindawi, vol. 2017, pages 1-8, October.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Spinoff creation; Academic entrepreneurship; University spinoff rules; Knowledge transfer strategies; University-Industry interaction;

    JEL classification:

    • L24 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Contracting Out; Joint Ventures
    • L31 - Industrial Organization - - Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise - - - Nonprofit Institutions; NGOs; Social Entrepreneurship
    • O32 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes

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