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Cluster Performance Reconsidered: Structure, Linkages and Paths in the German Bioteehnology Industry, 1996-2003

  • Carolin Häussler
  • Hans-Martin Zademach

We examine the evolution of biotechnology clusters in Germany between 1996 and 2003, paying particular attention to their composition in terms of venture capital, basic science institutions, and biotechnology firms. Drawing upon the significance of co-location of “money and ideas”, the literature stressing the importance of a cluster’s openness and external linkages, and the path dependency debate, we analyze how certain cluster characteristics correspond with each cluster’s overall performance. after defining different cluster types, we explore and compare the clusters’ internal and external interconnectivity, and investigate the extent to which the clusters’ structural composition has changed over time. Our results indicate that the structure, i.e., the type of cluster, and the cluster’s openness towards receiving external knowledge provide merely unsystematic indications of a cluster’s overall success. The cluster’s ability to modify its composition to a more balanced ratio of science and capital over time, in contrast, turns out to be a key explanatory factor.

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Article provided by LMU Munich School of Management in its journal Schmalenbach Business Review.

Volume (Year): 59 (2007)
Issue (Month): 3 (July)
Pages: 261-281

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Handle: RePEc:sbr:abstra:v:59:y:2007:i:3:p:261-281
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  1. Britta Klagge & Ron Martin, 2005. "Decentralized versus centralized financial systems: is there a case for local capital markets?," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 5(4), pages 387-421, August.
  2. Audretsch, David B & Stephan, Paula E, 1996. "Company-Scientist Locational Links: The Case of Biotechnology," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(3), pages 641-52, June.
  3. Jaffe, Adam B, 1989. "Real Effects of Academic Research," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(5), pages 957-70, December.
  4. Maskell, Peter & Malmberg, Anders, 1999. "Localised Learning and Industrial Competitiveness," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(2), pages 167-85, March.
  5. DiMasi, Joseph A. & Hansen, Ronald W. & Grabowski, Henry G., 2003. "The price of innovation: new estimates of drug development costs," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 151-185, March.
  6. Zucker, Lynne G & Darby, Michael R & Brewer, Marilynn B, 1998. "Intellectual Human Capital and the Birth of U.S. Biotechnology Enterprises," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(1), pages 290-306, March.
  7. Bresnahan, Timothy F & Gambardella, Alfonso & Saxenian, AnnaLee, 2001. "'Old Economy' Inputs for 'New Economy' Outcomes: Cluster Formation in the New Silicon Valleys," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(4), pages 835-60, December.
  8. Edward E Leamer & Michael Storper, 2001. "The Economic Geography of the Internet Age," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 32(4), pages 641-665, December.
  9. Audretsch, David B & Feldman, Maryann P, 1996. "R&D Spillovers and the Geography of Innovation and Production," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(3), pages 630-40, June.
  10. Harald Bathelt & Andersand Malmberg & Peter Maskell, 2002. "Clusters and Knowledge Local Buzz, Global Pipelines and the Process of Knowledge Creation," DRUID Working Papers 02-12, DRUID, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Industrial Economics and Strategy/Aalborg University, Department of Business Studies.
  11. Walter Powell & Kenneth Koput & James Bowie & Laurel Smith-Doerr, 2002. "The Spatial Clustering of Science and Capital: Accounting for Biotech Firm-Venture Capital Relationships," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(3), pages 291-305.
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