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Buy Local? The Geography of Venture Capital

In: Cities and Entrepreneurship

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  • Henry Chen
  • Paul Gompers
  • Anna Kovner
  • Josh Lerner

Abstract

We document geographic concentration by both venture capital firms and venture capital-financed companies in three metropolitan areas: San Francisco, Boston, and New York. We find that venture capital firms locate in regions with high success rates of venture capital-backed investments. Geography is also significantly related to outcomes. Venture capital firms based in locales that are venture capital centers outperform, regardless of the stage of the investment. This outperformance arises from outsized performance outside of the venture capital firms' office locations, including in peripheral locations. If the goal of state and local policy makers is to encourage venture capital investment, outperformance of non-local investments suggests that policy makers might want to mitigate costs associated with established venture capitalists investing in their geographies rather than encouraging the establishment of new venture capital firms.
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Suggested Citation

  • Henry Chen & Paul Gompers & Anna Kovner & Josh Lerner, 2010. "Buy Local? The Geography of Venture Capital," NBER Chapters,in: Cities and Entrepreneurship National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberch:11892
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    2. Boubaker, Sabri & Derouiche, Imen & Lasfer, Meziane, 2015. "Geographic location, excess control rights, and cash holdings," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 24-37.
    3. Elvin Afandi & Majid Kermani, 2014. "Bridging the Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Europe," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp1074, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    4. Sabrina T. Howell, 2017. "Financing Innovation: Evidence from R&D Grants," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, pages 1136-1164.
    5. Yael Hochberg & Michael Mazzeo & Ryan McDevitt, 2015. "Specialization and Competition in the Venture Capital Industry," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 46(4), pages 323-347, June.
    6. Carlino, Gerald & Kerr, William R., 2015. "Agglomeration and Innovation," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, Elsevier.
    7. Breinlich, Holger & Ottaviano, Gianmarco I.P. & Temple, Jonathan R.W., 2014. "Regional Growth and Regional Decline," Handbook of Economic Growth,in: Handbook of Economic Growth, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 4, pages 683-779 Elsevier.
    8. Fuchs, Florian & Fuess, Roland & Jenkinson, Tim & Morkoetter, Stefan, 2017. "Winning a Deal in Private Equity: Do Educational Networks Matter?," Working Papers on Finance 17155, University of St. Gallen, School of Finance.
    9. Bengtsson, Ola & Hsu, David H., 2015. "Ethnic matching in the U.S. venture capital market," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 338-354.
    10. Paul Gompers & William Gornall & Steven N. Kaplan & Ilya A. Strebulaev, 2016. "How Do Venture Capitalists Make Decisions?," NBER Working Papers 22587, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Kenney, Martin & Patton, Donald, 2015. "Gender, ethnicity and entrepreneurship in initial public offerings: illustrations from an open database," Research Policy, Elsevier, pages 1773-1784.
    12. Guven, Cahit & Senik, Claudia & Stichnoth, Holger, 2012. "You can’t be happier than your wife. Happiness gaps and divorce," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, pages 110-130.
    13. Fisher, Greg & Kuratko, Donald F. & Bloodgood, James M. & Hornsby, Jeffrey S., 2017. "Legitimate to whom? The challenge of audience diversity and new venture legitimacy," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 52-71.
    14. repec:bof:bofrdp:urn:nbn:fi:bof-201512111472 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Schertler, Andrea & Tykvová, Tereza, 2012. "What lures cross-border venture capital inflows?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 1777-1799.
    16. Derouiche, Imen & Jaafar, Kaouther & Zemzem, Ahmed, 2016. "Firm geographic location and voluntary disclosure," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, pages 29-47.
    17. Pontus Braunerhjelm & Simon Parker, 2010. "Josh Lerner: recipient of the 2010 Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research," Small Business Economics, Springer, pages 245-254.
    18. Tian, Xuan, 2011. "The causes and consequences of venture capital stage financing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 101(1), pages 132-159, July.
    19. repec:esx:essedp:729 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Malen, Joel & Marcus, Alfred A., 2017. "Promoting clean energy technology entrepreneurship: The role of external context," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 7-15.
    21. Field, Laura & Lowry, Michelle & Mkrtchyan, Anahit, 2013. "Are busy boards detrimental?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(1), pages 63-82.
    22. Howard Bodenhorn & David Cuberes, 2010. "Financial Development and City Growth: Evidence from Northeastern American Cities, 1790-1870," NBER Working Papers 15997, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    23. Braunerhjelm, Pontus & Parker, Simon, 2010. "Josh Lerner: Recipient of the 2010 Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 233, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
    24. Paul Gompers & Vladimir Mukharlyamov & Yuhai Xuan, 2012. "The Cost of Friendship," NBER Working Papers 18141, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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