Academic organizations and new industrial fields: Berkeley and Stanford after the rise of biotechnology
The increasing intertwining of academic and commercial research networks has led to fundamental changes in the organization of modern science. Industry links not only affect the professional dynamics within individual scholarly communities but also affect the position of these communities in their broader academic environment. This paper outlines how industry ties open up opportunities for scientific institution builders to strengthen the legitimacy of their fields of scientific enquiry within this environment. How an academic environment shapes efforts by institution-builders to pursue these opportunities is examined in the context of reorganizations in the life sciences at the University of California at Berkeley and Stanford University following the rise of biotechnology during the 1980s and 1990s. This study also highlights how different models of technology transfer shaped the organizational structures of the expansionist initiatives pushed through at these two universities by molecular biologists with close industry ties.
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