Contributions à l’analyse de la valorisation de la recherche : le cas de la France
The aim of this study is to contribute to the analysis of technology transfer for the french case. This was done by studying technology transfer offices created to manage and develop technology transfer and start-up having links with research. Regarding technology transfer offices, we studied their organizational learning and their efficiency. For startups we focused on the impact of links with public research on their growth indicators. Then we have proposed a model of development of startups founded by academic researchers, identifying critical factors of their trajectories. We relied on inductive qualitative method to study organizational learning of technology transfer based on participant observation and 15 interviews, followed by a quantitative method. The analysis of their efficiency was based on quantitative method. Regarding startups having links with research we studied a database composed of 387 JEI, using statistical and econometric methodology. To propose model of development of startups founded by researchers we relied on qualitative method based on 14 interviews with academic founders or surrogate entrepreneurs and 8 interviews with peripheral actors involved in the process. We found that technology transfer focus their learning on routines and practices linked to technical evaluation and negociation of licence contract at the expense of routines and practices linked to awareness, training, detection; commercial evaluation and research of industrial partners. Our result showed also the impact of the communitie of practice Curie on their learning. Regarding their efficiency we found a high rate of inefficiency and the specificity of French model regarding industrial spillovers. Regarding startups linked to research our results highlighted 2 links having an impact on growth indicators of startups belonging to information technology and communication sector: founded by researchers and having a licence. We found also that public investment is linked to venture investment. Finally we proposed a development model based on 4 non lineary phases, wich has evolved jointly with the environment.
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- Zucker, Lynne G & Darby, Michael R & Brewer, Marilynn B, 1998. "Intellectual Human Capital and the Birth of U.S. Biotechnology Enterprises," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(1), pages 290-306, March.
- Wright, Mike & Lockett, Andy & Clarysse, Bart & Binks, Martin, 2006. "University spin-out companies and venture capital," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 481-501, May.
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