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Endogenous R&D Spillovers and Industrial Research Productivity

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  • James D. Adams

Abstract

This paper explores the implications of a simple model of learning and innovation by firms. In this model R&D spillovers are partly determined by firms, rather than by the given economic environment. According to this approach the full effect of spillovers on research productivity of firms exceeds the structural effect because it includes an active learning' response of firms to new information. Furthermore, effective spillovers grow faster or slower than potential spillovers, depending on the returns to scale of production processes for learning and invention. The empirical work is based on a sample of R&D laboratories in the chemicals, machinery, electrical equipment, and transportation equipment industries. I estimate negative binomial regressions for the number of patents as a function of academic and industrial spillover pools, learning expenditures and internal research expenditures. The findings are consistent with the view that learning expenditures transmit the effect of spillovers. I also perform tobit, ordered probit and grouped probit estimation of learning effort. I find that learning effort increases in response to industrial and academic R&D spillovers. Lastly, academic spillovers appear to have a more pervasive effect on R&D than do industrial spillovers. Overall these results suggest a sequence of events underlying learning and innovation, with learning responding to opportunities, innovation responding to learning and own R&D, and a stream of innovations leading to the accumulation of new product introductions that ultimately are reflected in the value of enterprise.

Suggested Citation

  • James D. Adams, 2000. "Endogenous R&D Spillovers and Industrial Research Productivity," NBER Working Papers 7484, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:7484 Note: PR
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Tishler, Asher & Milstein, Irena, 2009. "R&D wars and the effects of innovation on the success and survivability of firms in oligopoly markets," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 519-531, July.
    2. Arora, Ashish & Ceccagnoli, Marco & Cohen, Wesley M., 2008. "R&D and the patent premium," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 1153-1179, September.
    3. Gamal Atallah, 2003. "Information sharing and the stability of cooperation in research joint ventures," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(6), pages 531-554.
    4. Gray, Richard S. & Malla, Stavroula & Tran, Kien C., 2003. "An Empirical Analysis Of Public And Private Spillovers Within The Canola Biotech Industry," 2003 Annual meeting, July 27-30, Montreal, Canada 22137, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    5. Jong-Rong Chen & Chih-Hai Yang, 2005. "Technological knowledge, spillover and productivity: evidence from Taiwanese firm level panel data," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(20), pages 2361-2371.
    6. David, Paul A. & Hall, Bronwyn H. & Toole, Andrew A., 2000. "Is public R&D a complement or substitute for private R&D? A review of the econometric evidence," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(4-5), pages 497-529, April.
    7. Gray, Richard S. & Malla, Stavroula & Tran, Kien C., 2005. "Pecuniary, Non-Pecuniary, and Downstream Research Spillovers: The Case of Canola," 2005 International Congress, August 23-27, 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark 24776, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    8. Adams, James D & Chiang, Eric P & Starkey, Katara, 2001. "Industry-University Cooperative Research Centers," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 26(1-2), pages 73-86, January.
    9. Fu, Xiaolan, 2012. "How does openness affect the importance of incentives for innovation?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 512-523.
    10. Gamal Atallah, 2004. "The Protection of Innovations," Working Papers 0402E, University of Ottawa, Department of Economics.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes

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