IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/unm/unumer/2006026.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Rough Road to Market: Institutional Barriers to Innovations in Africa

Author

Listed:
  • Oyelaran-Oyeyinka, Banji

    () (UNU-MERIT)

  • Gehl Sampath, Padmashree

    () (UNU-MERIT)

Abstract

Translating R&D and inventive efforts into a market product is characterized by significant financial skills, and the ability to overcome technical and instititonal barriers. Research into and translation of new technologies such as biotechnology products to the market requires even greater resources. This paper aims to understand the key factors that foster or hinder the complex process of translating R&D efforts into innovative products. Different pathways exist in developed countries such as firm-level efforts, the use of IPs, the spin-off of new firms that develop new products, or a mixture of these. Developing countries differ substantially in the kinds of instruments they use because of their considerably weaker institutional environment and for this reason our framework takes a systemic and institutional perspective. The paper comtributes to this issue by examining systemic institutional barriers to commercializing biotechnology in a develping context within a systems of innovation framework.

Suggested Citation

  • Oyelaran-Oyeyinka, Banji & Gehl Sampath, Padmashree, 2006. "Rough Road to Market: Institutional Barriers to Innovations in Africa," MERIT Working Papers 026, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  • Handle: RePEc:unm:unumer:2006026
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.merit.unu.edu/publications/wppdf/2006/wp2006-026.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Lehrer, Mark & Asakawa, Kazuhiro, 2004. "Rethinking the public sector: idiosyncrasies of biotechnology commercialization as motors of national R&D reform in Germany and Japan," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(6-7), pages 921-938, September.
    2. Teubal, Morris & Andersen, Esben, 2000. "Enterprise Restructuring and Embeddedness: A Policy and Systems Perspective," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 9(1), pages 87-111, March.
    3. Mowery, David C. & Nelson, Richard R. & Sampat, Bhaven N. & Ziedonis, Arvids A., 2001. "The growth of patenting and licensing by U.S. universities: an assessment of the effects of the Bayh-Dole act of 1980," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 99-119, January.
    4. Giesecke, Susanne, 2000. "The contrasting roles of government in the development of biotechnology industry in the US and Germany," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 205-223, February.
    5. Oliver, Amalya L., 2004. "Biotechnology entrepreneurial scientists and their collaborations," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 583-597, May.
    6. Bengt-ake Lundvall & Bjorn Johnson, 1994. "The Learning Economy," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(2), pages 23-42.
    7. Arundel, Anthony, 2001. "The relative effectiveness of patents and secrecy for appropriation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 611-624, April.
    8. Inzelt, Annamaria, 2004. "The evolution of university-industry-government relationships during transition," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(6-7), pages 975-995, September.
    9. Pisano, Gary P., 1996. "Learning-before-doing in the development of new process technology," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(7), pages 1097-1119, October.
    10. Håkansson, Håkan, 1990. "Technological collaboration in industrial networks," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 371-379, September.
    11. Di Gregorio, Dante & Shane, Scott, 2003. "Why do some universities generate more start-ups than others?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 209-227, February.
    12. Anoop Madhok & Thomas Osegowitsch, 2000. "The International Biotechnology Industry: A Dynamic Capabilities Perspective," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 31(2), pages 325-335, June.
    13. Whitley, Richard, 2003. "Competition and pluralism in the public sciences: the impact of institutional frameworks on the organisation of academic science," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1015-1029, June.
    14. Kenneth J. Arrow, 1962. "The Economic Implications of Learning by Doing," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 29(3), pages 155-173.
    15. Oyelaran-Oyeyinka, Banji & Lal, Kaushalesh, 2005. "Internet diffusion in sub-Saharan Africa: A cross-country analysis," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(7), pages 507-527, August.
    16. Kaiser, Robert & Prange, Heiko, 2004. "The reconfiguration of National Innovation Systems--the example of German biotechnology," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 395-408, April.
    17. Zucker, Lynne G & Darby, Michael R & Brewer, Marilynn B, 1998. "Intellectual Human Capital and the Birth of U.S. Biotechnology Enterprises," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(1), pages 290-306, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Stephen Oluwatobi & Uchenna Efobi & Isaiah Olurinola & Philip Alege, 2015. "Innovation in Africa: Why Institutions Matter," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 83(3), pages 390-410, September.
    2. Boladale Abiola Adebowale & Banji Oyelaran-Oyeyinka, 2012. "University-Industry Collaboration as a Determinant of Innovation in Nigeria," Institutions and Economies (formerly known as International Journal of Institutions and Economies), Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of Malaya, vol. 4(1), pages 21-46, April.
    3. Gehl Sampath, Padmashree, 2006. "Indian Pharma Within Global Reach?," MERIT Working Papers 031, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    research and development; biotechnology; commercialization; innovation; Africa; learning; institution building;

    JEL classification:

    • O32 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
    • L65 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - Chemicals; Rubber; Drugs; Biotechnology; Plastics
    • O34 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital
    • O17 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:unm:unumer:2006026. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ad Notten). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/meritnl.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.