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Citations for "Navigating the Patent Thicket: Cross Licenses, Patent Pools and Standard Setting"

by Carl Shapiro

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  1. Ryan L. Lampe & Petra Moser, 2012. "Do Patent Pools Encourage Innovation? Evidence from 20 U.S. Industries under the New Deal," NBER Working Papers 18316, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Langinier, Corinne, 2006. "Pool of Basic Patents and Follow-Up Innovations," Staff General Research Papers 12647, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  3. Steffen Brenner, 2009. "Optimal formation rules for patent pools," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 40(3), pages 373-388, September.
  4. Kato, Atsushi, 2004. "Patent pool enhances market competition," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 255-268, June.
  5. Sarkar, Shubhro, 2016. "Bargaining order and delays in multilateral bargaining with heterogeneous sellers," Mathematical Social Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 1-20.
  6. Paroma Sanyal, 2005. "Peanut Butter Patents Versus the New Economy: Does the Increased Rate of Patenting Signal More Invention or Just Lower Standards?," Industrial Organization 0504013, EconWPA.
  7. Cockburn, Iain M. & MacGarvie, Megan J. & Müller, Elisabeth, 2009. "Patent thickets, licensing and innovative performance," ZEW Discussion Papers 08-101 [rev.], ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  8. Julien Pénin, 2009. "On the consequences of university patenting: What can we learn by asking directly to academic inventors?," Working Papers of BETA 2009-04, Bureau d'Economie Théorique et Appliquée, UDS, Strasbourg.
  9. Aoki, Reiko & Schiff, Aaron, 2007. "Intellectual Property Clear inghouses: The Effects of Reduced Transaction Costs in Licensing," Discussion Paper Series a495, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  10. Mathias Dewatripont & Patrick Legros, 2008. ""Essential" Patents, FRAND Royalties and Technological Standards," Working Papers ECARES ECARES 2008-010, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  11. Rey, Patrick & Salant, David, 2012. "Abuse of Dominance and Licensing of Intellectual Property," TSE Working Papers 12-297, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE).
  12. Puay Tang & Jordi Molas-Gallart, 2005. "Intellectual Property and Inter-organizational Collaborative Networks: Navigating the Maze," SPRU Working Paper Series 130, SPRU - Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex.
  13. Layne-Farrar, Anne & Lerner, Josh, 2011. "To join or not to join: Examining patent pool participation and rent sharing rules," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 294-303, March.
  14. Grimpe, Christoph & Hussinger, Katrin, 2014. "Pre-empted patents, infringed patents and firms’ participation in markets for technology," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 543-554.
  15. Langinier, Corinne & Marcoul, Philippe, 2009. "Contributory infringement rule and patents," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 70(1-2), pages 296-310, May.
  16. Michel Trommetter, 2006. "La proprieté intellectuelle dans les biotechnologies agricoles : Quels enjeux pour quelles perspectives ?," Working Papers hal-00243036, HAL.
  17. Korkeamäki, Timo & Takalo, Tuomas, 2012. "Valuation of innovation : the case of iPhone," Research Discussion Papers 24/2012, Bank of Finland.
  18. Siebert, Ralph & von Graevenitz, Georg, 2006. "Jostling for Advantage: Licensing and Entry into Patent Portfolio Races," CEPR Discussion Papers 5753, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  19. Torrisi, Salvatore & Gambardella, Alfonso & Giuri, Paola & Harhoff, Dietmar & Hoisl, Karin & Mariani, Myriam, 2016. "Used, blocking and sleeping patents: Empirical evidence from a large-scale inventor survey," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(7), pages 1374-1385.
  20. Yooki Park & Suzanne Scotchmer, 2005. "Digital Rights Management and the Pricing of Digital Products," Levine's Bibliography 784828000000000402, UCLA Department of Economics.
  21. Chu, Angus C. & Cozzi, Guido & Galli, Silvia, 2010. "Does intellectual monopoly stimulate or stifle innovation?," MPRA Paper 29061, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  22. Rey, Patrick & Tirole, Jean, 2007. "Financing and Access in Cooperatives," IDEI Working Papers 404, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
  23. Klaus Kultti & Tuomas Takalo & Juuso Toikka, 2005. "Patents Hinder Collusion," Industrial Organization 0503015, EconWPA.
  24. Delcamp, Henry, 2015. "Are patent pools a way to help patent owners enforce their rights?," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 68-76.
  25. Corinne Langinier & GianCarlo Moschini, 2002. "Economics of Patents: An Overview, The," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 02-wp293, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
  26. Ghafele, Roya & Gibert, Benjamin, 2011. "The Transaction Cost Benefits of Electronic Patent Licensing Platforms: A Discussion at the Example of the PatentBooks Model," MPRA Paper 36010, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 10 Jan 2012.
  27. Bruno Versaevel & Vianney Dequiedt, 2007. "Patent Pools and the Dynamic Incentives to R&D," Working Papers 0703, Groupe d'Analyse et de Théorie Economique (GATE), Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), Université Lyon 2, Ecole Normale Supérieure.
  28. Layne-Farrar, Anne & Salinger, Michael A., 2016. "Bundling of RAND-committed patents," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(6), pages 1155-1164.
  29. Schmidt, Klaus M., 2008. "Complementary Patents and Market Structure," CEPR Discussion Papers 7005, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  30. Alfons Palangkaraya & Paul H. Jensen & Elizabeth Webster, 2005. "Determinants of International Patent Examination Outcomes," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2005n06, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
  31. Iain M. Cockburn & Megan J. MacGarvie, 2009. "Patents, Thickets and the Financing of Early-Stage Firms: Evidence from the Software Industry," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(3), pages 729-773, 09.
  32. Litan, Robert E. & Shapiro, Carl, 2001. "Antitrust Policy During the Clinton Administration," Competition Policy Center, Working Paper Series qt45r5r72p, Competition Policy Center, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  33. Robert M. Hunt, 2006. "When Do More Patents Reduce R&D?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(2), pages 87-91, May.
  34. Hoisl, Karin & Stelzer, Tobias & Biala, Stefanie, 2015. "Forecasting technological discontinuities in the ICT industry," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 522-532.
  35. Shapiro, Carl, 2002. "The FTC's Challenge to Intel's Cross-Licensing Practices," Competition Policy Center, Working Paper Series qt9756j0km, Competition Policy Center, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  36. Siebert, Ralph Bernd & Graevenitz, Georg von, 2010. "Licensing in the Patent Thicket - Timing and Benefits," MPRA Paper 24007, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  37. Mario Calderini & Andrea Giannaccari, 2006. "Standardisation in the ICT sector: The (complex) interface between antitrust and intellectual property," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(6), pages 543-567.
  38. Prabal Roy Chowdhury & Kunal Sengupta, 2010. "Transparency, Complementarity and Holdout," Monash Economics Working Papers 49-10, Monash University, Department of Economics.
  39. Blind, Knut & Thumm, Nikolaus, 2004. "Interrelation between patenting and standardisation strategies: empirical evidence and policy implications," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(10), pages 1583-1598, December.
  40. Kang, Byeongwoo & Bekkers, Rudi, 2015. "Just-in-time patents and the development of standards," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(10), pages 1948-1961.
  41. Sweet, Cassandra Mehlig & Eterovic Maggio, Dalibor Sacha, 2015. "Do Stronger Intellectual Property Rights Increase Innovation?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 665-677.
  42. Michel Trommetter, 2010. "Flexibility in the implementation of intellectual property rights in agricultural biotechnology," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 30(3), pages 223-245, December.
  43. Fiona Murray & Scott Stern, 2005. "Do Formal Intellectual Property Rights Hinder the Free Flow of Scientific Knowledge? An Empirical Test of the Anti-Commons Hypothesis," NBER Working Papers 11465, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  44. Siebert, Ralph & Graevenitz, Georg von, 2006. "How Licensing Resolves Hold-Up: Evidence from a Dynamic Panel Data Model with Unobserved Heterogeneity," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 105, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
  45. Nancy Gallini & Suzanne Scotchmer, 2003. "Intellectual Property: When is it the Best Incentive System?," Levine's Working Paper Archive 618897000000000532, David K. Levine.
  46. Nambisan, Satish, 2013. "Industry technical committees, technological distance, and innovation performance," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(4), pages 928-940.
  47. Sternitzke, Christian, 2013. "An exploratory analysis of patent fencing in pharmaceuticals: The case of PDE5 inhibitors," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 542-551.
  48. Fehder, Daniel C. & Murray, Fiona & Stern, Scott, 2014. "Intellectual property rights and the evolution of scientific journals as knowledge platforms," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 83-94.
  49. Palmberg, Christopher & Martikainen, Olli, 2004. "The Finnish Telecom Sector Facing Next Generation Standards - Indigenous Capabilities Versus R&D Alliances," Discussion Papers 949, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
  50. Josh Lerner & Feng Zhu, 2005. "What is the Impact of Software Patent Shifts?: Evidence from Lotus v. Borland," NBER Working Papers 11168, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  51. Pénin, Julien & Wack, Jean-Pierre, 2008. "Research tool patents and free-libre biotechnology: A suggested unified framework," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(10), pages 1909-1921, December.
  52. Joseph E. Stiglitz, 2014. "Leaders and Followers: Perspectives on the Nordic Model and the Economics of Innovation," NBER Working Papers 20493, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  53. Erkal, Nisvan, 2005. "The decision to patent, cumulative innovation, and optimal policy," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 23(7-8), pages 535-562, September.
  54. Shapiro, Carl, 2003. " Antitrust Limits to Patent Settlements," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 34(2), pages 391-411, Summer.
  55. Brusoni, Stefano & Crespi, Gustavo & Francoz, Dominique & Gambardella, Alfonso & Garcia-Fontes, Walter & Geuna, Aldo & Giuri, Paola & Gonzales, Raul & Harhoff, Dietmar & Hoisl, Karin & LeBas, Christia, 2006. "Everything You Always Wanted to Know about Inventors (But Never Asked): Evidence from the PatVal-EU Survey," CEPR Discussion Papers 5752, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  56. Nicolas van Zeebroeck & Bruno Van Pottelsberghe & Dominique Guellec, 2006. "Claiming more: the increased voluminosity of patent applications and its determinants," Working Papers CEB 06-018.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  57. Murray, Fiona & Stern, Scott, 2007. "Do formal intellectual property rights hinder the free flow of scientific knowledge?: An empirical test of the anti-commons hypothesis," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 63(4), pages 648-687, August.
  58. Rosell, Carlos & Agrawal, Ajay, 2009. "Have university knowledge flows narrowed?: Evidence from patent data," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 1-13, February.
  59. Heisey, Paul W. & Day-Rubenstein, Kelly A. & King, John L., 2006. "Government Patenting And Technology Transfer," Economic Research Report 33597, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
  60. Hall, Bronwyn H., 2010. "Business and financial method patents, innovation, and policy," MERIT Working Papers 010, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  61. Kim, Bongsun & Kim, Eonsoo & Miller, Douglas J. & Mahoney, Joseph T., 2016. "The impact of the timing of patents on innovation performance," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(4), pages 914-928.
  62. Subramanian, Annapoornima M. & Lim, Kwanghui & Soh, Pek-Hooi, 2013. "When birds of a feather don’t flock together: Different scientists and the roles they play in biotech R&D alliances," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 595-612.
  63. Clark, Derek J. & Konrad, Kai A., 2006. "Fragmented property rights and R&D competition," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 123, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
  64. Korkeamäki, Timo & Takalo, Tuomas, 2012. "Valuation of innovation: The case of iPhone," Research Discussion Papers 24/2012, .
  65. Gilbert, Richard J. & Katz, Michael L., 2011. "Efficient division of profits from complementary innovations," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 443-454, July.
  66. Gans, Joshua S. & Stern, Scott, 2003. "The product market and the market for "ideas": commercialization strategies for technology entrepreneurs," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 333-350, February.
  67. Neuhäusler , Peter & Schubert, Torben & Frietsch , Rainer & Blind , Knut, 2015. "Managing Portfolio Risk in Strategic Technology Management: Evidence from a Panel Data Set of the World’s Largest R&D Performers," Papers in Innovation Studies 2015/41, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
  68. Rammer, Christian & Bethmann, Nicola, 2009. "Schwerpunktbericht zur Innovationserhebung 2008: Innovationspartnerschaften - Schutz und Verletzung von intellektuellem Eigentum," ZEW Dokumentationen 09-01, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  69. Iain M. Cockburn & Megan J. MacGarvie, 2011. "Entry and Patenting in the Software Industry," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 57(5), pages 915-933, May.
  70. Schneider, Cédric, 2008. "Fences and competition in patent races," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 1348-1364, November.
  71. Bekkers, Rudi & Bongard, René & Nuvolari, Alessandro, 2011. "An empirical study on the determinants of essential patent claims in compatibility standards," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(7), pages 1001-1015, September.
  72. Francesco Rentocchini, 2010. "Sources and characteristics of software patents in the European Union: some empirical considerations," Openloc Working Papers 1022, Public policies and local development.
  73. Dennis W. Carlton, 2007. "Does Antitrust Need to be Modernized?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 21(3), pages 155-176, Summer.
  74. Katrin Hussinger, 2006. "Is Silence Golden? Patents Versus Secrecy At The Firm Level," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(8), pages 735-752.
  75. Soh, Pek-Hooi & Subramanian, Annapoornima M., 2014. "When do firms benefit from university–industry R&D collaborations? The implications of firm R&D focus on scientific research and technological recombination," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 807-821.
  76. Fischer, Timo & Henkel, Joachim, 2012. "Patent trolls on markets for technology – An empirical analysis of NPEs’ patent acquisitions," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(9), pages 1519-1533.
  77. Alexandre Almeida & Aurora A.C. Teixeira, 2007. "Does Patenting negatively impact on R&D investment?An international panel data assessment," FEP Working Papers 255, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
  78. Markman, Gideon D. & Gianiodis, Peter T. & Phan, Phillip H. & Balkin, David B., 2005. "Innovation speed: Transferring university technology to market," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1058-1075, September.
  79. Vianney Dequiedt & Bruno Versaevel, 2013. "Patent pools and dynamic R&D incentives," Post-Print halshs-00833828, HAL.
  80. Prabal Roy Chowdhury & Kunal Sengupta, 2008. "Multi-person bargaining with complementarity: Is there holdout?," Indian Statistical Institute, Planning Unit, New Delhi Discussion Papers 08-10, Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi, India.
  81. Trommetter, M., 2004. "Biodiversity and international stakes : a question of access," Working Papers 200418, Grenoble Applied Economics Laboratory (GAEL).
  82. Panagopoulos, Andreas, 2003. "Understanding when universities and firms form RJVs: the importance of intellectual property protection," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 21(9), pages 1411-1433, November.
  83. Elisabetta Ottoz & Franco Cugno, 2008. "Patent--Secret Mix in Complex Product Firms," American Law and Economics Review, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(1), pages 142-158.
  84. Gallini, Nancy, 2014. "Cooperating with competitors: Patent pooling and choice of a new standard," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 4-21.
  85. Ugo Pagano & Maria Rossi, 2004. "Incomplete Contracts, Intellectual Property and Institutional Complementarities," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 18(1), pages 55-76, July.
  86. Ashish Arora & Marco Ceccagnoli & Wesley M. Cohen, 2003. "R&D and the Patent Premium," NBER Working Papers 9431, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  87. Howells, John, 2005. "Are Patents used to Suppress Useful Technology?," Working Papers 2005-10, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Department of Management.
  88. Aalbers, Rob & Shestalova, Victoria & Kocsis, Viktória, 2013. "Innovation policy for directing technical change in the power sector," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 1240-1250.
  89. Galasso, Alberto & Schankerman, Mark, 2008. "Patent Thickets, Judicial Enforcement and the Market for Innovation: Theory and Evidence from Patent Litigation," CEPR Discussion Papers 6946, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  90. Alberto Galasso & Mark Schankerman & Carlos J. Serrano, 2013. "Trading and enforcing patent rights," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 51080, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  91. Nagaoka, Sadao & Kwon, Hyeog Ug, 2006. "The incidence of cross-licensing: A theory and new evidence on the firm and contract level determinants," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 1347-1361, November.
  92. Denicolò, Vincenzo & Halmenschlager, Christine, 2012. "Optimal patentability requirements with complementary innovations," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 190-204.
  93. Pénin, Julien, 2012. "Strategic uses of patents in markets for technology: A story of fabless firms, brokers and trolls," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 84(2), pages 633-641.
  94. Prud’homme, Dan, 2016. "Dynamics of China’s provincial-level specialization in strategic emerging industries," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(8), pages 1586-1603.
  95. Walsh, John P. & Cohen, Wesley M. & Cho, Charlene, 2007. "Where excludability matters: Material versus intellectual property in academic biomedical research," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 1184-1203, October.
  96. Liu, Kun & Arthurs, Jonathan & Cullen, John & Alexander, Roger, 2008. "Internal sequential innovations: How does interrelatedness affect patent renewal?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 946-953, June.
  97. Joachim Henkel & Stefanie Pangerl, 2008. "Defensive Publishing An Empirical Study," DRUID Working Papers 08-04, DRUID, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Industrial Economics and Strategy/Aalborg University, Department of Business Studies.
  98. Josh Lerner & Jean Tirole & Marcin Strojwas, 2003. "Cooperative Marketing Agreements Between Competitors: Evidence from Patent Pools," NBER Working Papers 9680, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  99. Timothy S. Simcoe & Stuart J.H. Graham & Maryann Feldman, 2007. "Competing on Standards? Entrepreneurship, Intellectual Property and the Platform Paradox," NBER Working Papers 13632, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  100. Mario Calderini & Giuseppe Scellato, 2004. "Intellectual property rights as strategic assets: the case of european patent opposition in the telecommunication industry," KITeS Working Papers 158, KITeS, Centre for Knowledge, Internationalization and Technology Studies, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy, revised Jul 2004.
  101. Niwa, Sumiko, 2016. "Patent claims and economic growth," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 377-381.
  102. Kashif Rashid & Adeela Rustam, 2014. "Comparative Analysis of Local and Foreign Banks Efficiency: A Case Study of Pakistan," Oeconomics of Knowledge, Saphira Publishing House, vol. 6(3), pages 7-52, August.
  103. Antonelli, Cristiano, 2003. "The Governance of Technological Knowledge: Strategies, Processes and Public Policies," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis LEI & BRICK - Laboratory of Economics of Innovation "Franco Momigliano", Bureau of Research in Innovation, Complexity and Knowledge, Collegio 200306, University of Turin.
  104. Berger, Florian & Blind, Knut & Thumm, Nikolaus, 2012. "Filing behaviour regarding essential patents in industry standards," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 216-225.
  105. Mueller, Elisabeth & Cockburn, Iain M. & MacGarvie, Megan, 2013. "Access to intellectual property for innovation: Evidence on problems and coping strategies from German firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 529-541.
  106. Author One David Harbord & Author Two Marco Ottaviani, 2002. "Contracts and Competition in the Pay-TV Market," Industrial Organization 0203005, EconWPA.
  107. Pohlmann, Tim & Opitz, Marieke, 2010. "The Patent Troll Business: An Efficient model to enforce IPR?," MPRA Paper 27342, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 01 Dec 2010.
  108. Alberto Galasso & Mark Schankerman, 2008. "Patent Thickets and the Market for Innovation: Evidence from Settlement of Patent Disputes," CEP Discussion Papers dp0889, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  109. Trommetter, M., 2008. "Intellectual property rights in agricultural and agro-food biotechnologies to 2030 (© OECD International Futures Programme)," Working Papers 200805, Grenoble Applied Economics Laboratory (GAEL).
  110. Jay Pil Choi, 2003. "Pools and Cross-Licensing in the Shadow of Patent Litigation," CESifo Working Paper Series 1070, CESifo Group Munich.
  111. Baron, Justus & Ménière, Yann & Pohlmann, Tim, 2014. "Standards, consortia, and innovation," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 22-35.
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