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R&D Organization: Cooperation or Cross-Licensing?

  • Marie-Laure Cabon-Dhersin
  • Rim Lahmandi-Ayed

Under the Cross-Licensing system (CL), firms are allowed to trade non cooperatively the results of R&D efforts, and compete in the innovation and production stages. First, the paper proposes a simple modeling of this system. Second, a relevant comparison is made with the Cartelized Research Joint Venture (RJV), the form of R&D cooperation recognized to be the best one. We prove that the Cross-Licensing system may be socially better than the Cartelized RJV. In terms of antitrust policy, for firms, the most favorable collusion mode is Joint Exploitation. We prove that firms are equally tempted by this mode, whether they are under CL or under Cartelized RJV.

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Article provided by De Boeck Université in its journal Recherches économiques de Louvain.

Volume (Year): 77 (2011)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 31-52

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Handle: RePEc:cai:reldbu:rel_771_0031
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  1. Jay Pil Choi, 1999. "A Dynamic Analysis of Licensing: The Boomerang Effect and Grant-Back Clauses," CESifo Working Paper Series 188, CESifo Group Munich.
  2. Antonio Tesoriere, 2008. "A Further Note on Endogenous Spillovers in a Non-tournament R&D Duopoly," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 33(2), pages 177-184, September.
  3. Morton I. Kamien & Yair Tauman, 1984. "Fees Versus Royalties and the Private Value of a Patent," Discussion Papers 583, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
  4. Pastor, Maite & Sandonis, Joel, 2002. "Research joint ventures vs. cross licensing agreements: an agency approach," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 215-249, February.
  5. Hans Gersbach & Armin Schmutzler, 1999. "Endogenous Spillovers and Incentives to Innovate," SOI - Working Papers 9902, Socioeconomic Institute - University of Zurich.
  6. Fershtman, C. & Kamien, M.I., 1991. "Cross Licensing of Complementary Technologies," Papers 1-91, Tel Aviv.
  7. Steffen Brenner, 2009. "Optimal formation rules for patent pools," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 40(3), pages 373-388, September.
  8. Kato, Atsushi, 2004. "Patent pool enhances market competition," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 255-268, June.
  9. Mukesh Eswaran, 1994. "Cross-Licensing of Competing Patents as a Facilitating Device," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 27(3), pages 689-708, August.
  10. Lambertini, Luca & Poddar, Sougata & Sasaki, Dan, 2002. "Research joint ventures, product differentiation, and price collusion," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 20(6), pages 829-854, June.
  11. Kogut, Bruce, 1989. "The Stability of Joint Ventures: Reciprocity and Competitive Rivalry," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(2), pages 183-98, December.
  12. Katz, Michael L & Shapiro, Carl, 1986. "How to License Intangible Property," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 101(3), pages 567-89, August.
  13. Arora, Ashish & Fosfuri, Andrea, 1999. "Licensing the Market for Technology," CEPR Discussion Papers 2284, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  14. Piga, Claudio & Poyago-Theotoky, Joanna, 2005. "Endogenous R&D spillovers and locational choice," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 127-139, March.
  15. Amir, Rabah, et al, 2002. "Monopoly versus R&D-Integrated Duopoly," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 70(1), pages 88-100, January.
  16. Li, Changying & Song, Juan, 2009. "Technology licensing in a vertically differentiated duopoly," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 183-190, March.
  17. Nagaoka, Sadao & Kwon, Hyeog Ug, 2006. "The incidence of cross-licensing: A theory and new evidence on the firm and contract level determinants," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 1347-1361, November.
  18. Stamatopoulos, Giorgos & Tauman, Yair, 2008. "Licensing of a quality-improving innovation," Mathematical Social Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 56(3), pages 410-438, November.
  19. Fauli-Oller, Ramon & Sandonis, Joel, 2003. "To merge or to license: implications for competition policy," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 655-672, May.
  20. Joanna Poyago-Theotoky, 1999. "A Note on Endogenous Spillovers in a Non-Tournament R & D Duopoly," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 15(3), pages 253-262, November.
  21. Anand, Bharat N & Khanna, Tarun, 2000. "The Structure of Licensing Contracts," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(1), pages 103-35, March.
  22. Marie-Laure Cabon-Dhersin & Shyama Ramani, 2005. "Does trust matter for R&D cooperation? A game theoretic examination," Theory and Decision, Springer, vol. 57(2), pages 143-180, 03.
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