Private Agreements for Coordinating Patent Rights: The Case of Patent Pools
Inventors and users of technology often enter into cooperative agreements for sharing their intellectual property in order to implement a standard or to avoid costly infringement litigation. Over the past two decades, U.S. antitrust authorities have viewed pooling arrangements that integrate complementary, valid and essential patents to have â€œpro-competitive benefitsâ€ in reducing prices, transactions costs, and the incidence of costly infringement suits. Since patent pools are cooperative agreements, they also have the potential of suppressing competition if, for example, they harbor weak or invalid patents, dampen incentives to conduct research on innovations that compete with the pooled patents, foreclose competition from downstream product or upstream innovation markets, or raise prices on goods that compete with the pooled patents. In synthesizing the ideas advanced in the economic literature, this paper explores whether these antitrust concerns apply to pools with complementary patents. Special attention is given to the U.S. Department of Justice-Federal Trade Commission Guidelines for the Licensing of Intellectual Property (1995) and its application to recent patent pool cases.
|Date of creation:||17 Nov 2010|
|Date of revision:||17 Nov 2010|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.economics.ubc.ca/|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Vianney Dequiedt & Bruno Versaevel, 2013.
"Patent pools and dynamic R&D incentives,"
- Michael D. Whinston, 1989.
"Tying, Foreclosure, and Exclusion,"
NBER Working Papers
2995, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Chaim Fershtman & Morton I. Kamien, 1990.
"Cross Licensing of Complementary Technologies,"
866, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
- Cabral, Luís & Salant, David, 2014.
"Evolving technologies and standards regulation,"
International Journal of Industrial Organization,
Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 48-56.
- Schiff, Aaron & Aoki, Reiko, 2007.
"Differentiated Standards and Patent Pools,"
PIE/CIS Discussion Paper
336, Center for Intergenerational Studies, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
- Vianney Dequiedt & Bruno Versaevel, 2007.
"Patent Pools and the Dynamic Incentives to R&D,"
- Dequiedt, V. & Versaevel, B., 2004. "Patent pools and the dynamic incentives to R&D," Working Papers 200412, Grenoble Applied Economics Laboratory (GAEL).
- Bruno Versaevel & Vianney Dequiedt, 2007. "Patent Pools and the Dynamic Incentives to R&D," Working Papers 0703, Groupe d'Analyse et de Théorie Economique (GATE), Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), Université Lyon 2, Ecole Normale Supérieure.
- Michele Boldrin & David K Levine, 2008.
"Against Intellectual Monopoly,"
122247000000002371, UCLA Department of Economics.
- Boldrin,Michele & Levine,David K., 2010. "Against Intellectual Monopoly," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521127264, june. pag.
- Boldrin,Michele & Levine,David K., 2008. "Against Intellectual Monopoly," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521879286, june. pag.
- Nancy Gallini & Suzanne Scotchmer, 2002.
"Intellectual Property: When Is It the Best Incentive System?,"
Law and Economics
- Nancy Gallini & Suzanne Scotchmer, 2002. "Intellectual Property: When Is It the Best Incentive System?," NBER Chapters, in: Innovation Policy and the Economy, Volume 2, pages 51-78 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Nancy Gallini and Suzanne Scotchmer., 2001. "Intellectual Property: When Is It the Best Incentive System?," Economics Working Papers E01-303, University of California at Berkeley.
- Gallini, Nancy & Scotchmer, Suzanne, 2001. "Intellectual Property: When Is It the Best Incentive System?," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt9wx2c2hz, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
- Nancy Gallini & Suzanne Scotchmer, 2003. "Intellectual Property: When is it the Best Incentive System?," Levine's Working Paper Archive 618897000000000532, David K. Levine.
- Lemley, Mark A. & Shapiro, Carl, 2004.
Competition Policy Center, Working Paper Series
qt9xf1488p, Competition Policy Center, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
- James Bessen & Eric Maskin, 2006.
"Sequential Innovation, Patents, and Imitation,"
Economics Working Papers
0025, Institute for Advanced Study, School of Social Science.
- Alberto Galasso & Mark Schankerman, 2010. "Patent thickets, courts, and the market for innovation," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 41(3), pages 472-503.
- Josh Lerner & Jean Tirole, 2004.
"Efficient Patent Pools,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 94(3), pages 691-711, June.
- Kremer, Michael R., 1998. "Patent Buyouts: A Mechanism for Encouraging Innovation," Scholarly Articles 3693705, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Sunil Kanwar & Robert E Evanson, 2004.
"Does Intellectual Property Protection Spur Technological Change?,"
Levine's Working Paper Archive
122247000000000455, David K. Levine.
- Sunil Kanwar & Robert Evenson, 2003. "Does intellectual property protection spur technological change?," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 55(2), pages 235-264, April.
- Sunil Kanwar & Robert Evenson, 2001. "Does Intellectual Property Protection Spur Technological Change," Working Papers 831, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
- James Bessen & Michael J. Meurer, 2008.
"Introduction to Patent Failure: How Judges, Bureaucrats, and Lawyers Put Innovators at Risk
[Patent Failure: How Judges, Bureaucrats, and Lawyers Put Innovators at Risk]," Introductory Chapters, Princeton University Press.
- Jay Pil Choi & Heiko Gerlach, 2011.
"Selection Biases in Complementary R&D Projects,"
CESifo Working Paper Series
3425, CESifo Group Munich.
- Jay Pil Choi, 2005. "Live and Let Live: A Tale of Weak Patents," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(2-3), pages 724-733, 04/05.
- Shavell, Steven & van Ypersele, Tanguy, 2001.
"Rewards versus Intellectual Property Rights,"
Journal of Law and Economics,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 44(2), pages 525-47, October.
- Steven Shavell & Tanguy van Ypersele, 1999. "Rewards versus Intellectual Property Rights," NBER Working Papers 6956, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- SHAVELL, Steven & VAN YPERSELE, Tanguy, . "Rewards versus intellectual property rights," CORE Discussion Papers RP 1597, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Shavell, S. & van Ypersele de Strihou, T.P.M.C., 1999. "Rewards versus intellectual property rights," Discussion Paper 1999-26, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- Aoki, Reiko & Schiff, Aaron, 2007. "Promoting Access to Intellectual Property: Patent Pools, Copyright Collectives and Clearinghouses," PIE/CIS Discussion Paper 334, Center for Intergenerational Studies, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
- Gallini, Nancy T, 1984. "Deterrence by Market Sharing: A Strategic Incentive for Licensing," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(5), pages 931-41, December.
- Delcamp, Henry, 2015. "Are patent pools a way to help patent owners enforce their rights?," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 68-76.
- Ryan L. Lampe & Petra Moser, 2009. "Do Patent Pools Encourage Innovation? Evidence from the 19th-Century Sewing Machine Industry," NBER Working Papers 15061, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Sung-Hwan Kim, 2004. "Vertical Structure and Patent Pools," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 25(3), pages 231-250, 07.
- Arora, Ashish & Fosfuri, Andrea & Gambardella, Alfonso, 2001. "Markets for Technology and Their Implications for Corporate Strategy," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(2), pages 419-51, June.
- Mukesh Eswaran & Nancy Gallini, 1996. "Patent Policy and the Direction of Technological Change," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 27(4), pages 722-746, Winter.
- Hall, Bronwyn H & Ziedonis, Rosemarie Ham, 2001. "The Patent Paradox Revisited: An Empirical Study of Patenting in the U.S. Semiconductor Industry, 1979-1995," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 32(1), pages 101-28, Spring.
- Sunil Kanwar, 2010.
"Intellectual Property Protection and the Licensing of Technology to Developing Countries,"
188, Centre for Development Economics, Delhi School of Economics.
- Sunil Kanwar, 2010. "Intellectual Property Protection and the Licensing of Technology to Developing Countries," Working Papers id:2830, eSocialSciences.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ubc:bricol:nancy_gallini-2010-34. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Maureen Chin)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.