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Female representation in Economics, as of April 2021

These statistics draw on the published economists registered with the RePEc Author Service. Gender attribution is performed through analysis of first names and a list of exceptions. A category is listed if it has at least 50 members.

Overall, 16032 of 61933 economists are female, or a proportion of 25.8%.

Listings by

Each table can be sorted by clicking on table headers.

Female representation in Economics by country

Attribution to country is based on affiliations. For economists with multiple affiliations, affiliation shares set by the economist are considered.

Country # authors # female share(%)
Algeria53.07713.1
Argentina341.385.8925.1
Australia1489.24366.1124.5
Austria469.7790.7419.3
Bangladesh136.2511.658.5
Belgium810.1203.2925
Bolivia70.2518.526.3
Brazil802.37125.2515.6
Bulgaria206.69104.4250.5
Canada1626.53332.3120.4
Chile427.4665.415.2
China1202.33310.9225.8
Colombia664.93151.7522.8
Croatia156.058252.5
Czech Republic423.38132.5231.3
Denmark418.9998.5323.5
Ecuador58.739.516.1
Egypt88.9530.0133.7
Estonia56.11832
Ethiopia50.6512.524.6
Finland239.3255.523.1
France3597.731150.8531.9
Germany3465.79862.7824.8
Ghana99.89.59.5
Greece545.06119.0721.8
Hong Kong146.742517
Hungary307.4481.8426.6
India1008.14278.8427.6
Indonesia326.9777.0623.5
Iran132.151712.8
Ireland287.7794.4732.8
Israel210.522411.4
Italy3131.091021.5232.6
Japan1135.51146.0212.8
Luxembourg161.6836.7822.7
North Macedonia65.7327.541.8
Malaysia327.5479.924.3
Mexico384.371.5818.6
Morocco63.328.6113.5
Netherlands1110.52243.7621.9
New Zealand272.6959.8521.9
Nigeria259.248.1318.5
Norway444.6277.3517.3
Pakistan455.6298.8321.6
Peru22337.8316.9
Philippines146.9151.4234.9
Poland649.34215.433.1
Portugal659.57240.1336.4
Romania1131.08652.3157.6
Russia1451.56630.2943.4
Saudi Arabia74.645.47.2
Singapore196.1136.7318.7
Slovakia118.4340.233.9
Slovenia51.261223.4
South Africa347.11104.6630.1
South Korea351.3181.1623.1
Spain2276.96727.3331.9
Sweden701.05179.8425.6
Switzerland974.07218.822.4
Taiwan237.085523.1
Thailand119.6848.1440.2
Tunisia232.7468.8429.5
Turkey840.7216.4125.7
United Arab Emirates83.7314.5517.3
United Kingdom3723.49940.7125.2
Ukraine196.171.8436.6
Uruguay120.7145.437.6
United States11335.282488.9821.9
Viet Nam157.9340.8425.8

Female representation in Economics by US state

Attribution to state is based on affiliations. For economists with multiple affiliations, affiliation shares set by the economist are considered.

State # authors # female share (%)
Alabama (United States)92.5717.7119.1
Arizona (United States)95.6522.2523.2
California (United States)1090.37232.6521.3
Colorado (United States)130.8227.9421.3
Connecticut (United States)210.734.7116.4
District of Columbia (United States)2161.35561.4225.9
Florida (United States)225.7756.9925.2
Georgia (United States)277.1162.8122.6
Iowa (United States)79.1318.2523
Illinois (United States)508.0886.4917
Indiana (United States)242.3652.6521.7
Kansas (United States)69.141318.8
Kentucky (United States)80.121417.4
Louisiana (United States)72.1213.3818.5
Massachusetts (United States)826.98187.8822.7
Maryland (United States)209.8339.5318.8
Michigan (United States)300.1259.3419.7
Minnesota (United States)162.2434.7321.4
Missouri (United States)219.2552.4523.9
North Carolina (United States)299.0953.3217.8
New Hampshire (United States)55.8613.7924.6
New Jersey (United States)195.3938.0319.4
New York (United States)927.09206.1122.2
Ohio (United States)246.548.3719.6
Oklahoma (United States)81.220.8725.7
Oregon (United States)59.9518.530.8
Pennsylvania (United States)504.49115.8222.9
Rhode Island (United States)87.3816.4918.8
South Carolina (United States)83.7215.518.5
Tennessee (United States)133.9825.4218.9
Texas (United States)458.592.9620.2
Utah (United States)106.815.314.3
Virginia (United States)311.3358.8818.9
Washington (United States)96.082121.8
Wisconsin (United States)153.2935.5323.1

Female representation in Economics by field

Field is determined by the proportion of papers announced through NEP that are in a particular field. Note that a paper may be is several fields.

Field # authors # female share (%)
NEP-ACC: Accounting & Auditing184.3354.7529.7
NEP-AFR: Africa384.7599.0625.7
NEP-AGE: Economics of Ageing347.21106.0130.5
NEP-AGR: Agricultural Economics1384.22395.9828.6
NEP-ARA: MENA - Middle East & North Africa356.9494.8526.5
NEP-BAN: Banking765.97184.5624
NEP-BEC: Business Economics479.68111.1423.1
NEP-BIG: Big Data126.9330.7624.2
NEP-CBA: Central Banking1230.51249.4220.2
NEP-CBE: Cognitive & Behavioural Economics439.47131.0829.8
NEP-CDM: Collective Decision-Making398.8886.5221.6
NEP-CFN: Corporate Finance271.9254.219.9
NEP-CIS: Confederation of Independent States467.58208.5844.6
NEP-CMP: Computational Economics340.6273.1721.4
NEP-CNA: China254.9779.6131.2
NEP-COM: Industrial Competition715.21141.7119.8
NEP-CSE: Economics of Strategic Management461.14157.634.1
NEP-CTA: Contract Theory & Applications212.2243.9520.7
NEP-CUL: Cultural Economics95.9638.5240.1
NEP-CWA: Central & Western Asia277.8170.0225.2
NEP-DCM: Discrete Choice Models229.4461.7326.9
NEP-DEM: Demographic Economics215.7495.3644.2
NEP-DES: Economic Design61.7911.2918.2
NEP-DEV: Development761.45235.4130.9
NEP-DGE: Dynamic General Equilibrium1280.65246.9719.2
NEP-ECM: Econometrics829.31133.6216.1
NEP-EDU: Education588.65193.4532.8
NEP-EEC: European Economics663.39167.5825.2
NEP-EFF: Efficiency & Productivity561.68150.4426.7
NEP-ENE: Energy Economics1303.02296.0422.7
NEP-ENT: Entrepreneurship376.19100.8726.8
NEP-ENV: Environmental Economics1525.57389.5225.5
NEP-ETS: Econometric Time Series367.2756.2615.3
NEP-EUR: Microeconomic European Issues766.26285.4337.2
NEP-EVO: Evolutionary Economics156.434.6622.1
NEP-EXP: Experimental Economics1146.9327.6128.5
NEP-FDG: Financial Development & Growth254.3253.4321
NEP-FMK: Financial Markets245.7141.7817
NEP-FOR: Forecasting318.8266.820.9
NEP-GEN: Gender100.7442.0841.7
NEP-GEO: Economic Geography563.69130.4223.1
NEP-GER: German Papers196.4650.6525.7
NEP-GRO: Economic Growth250.6747.7419
NEP-GTH: Game Theory607.57114.8118.8
NEP-HAP: Economics of Happiness139.7648.3934.6
NEP-HEA: Health Economics837.16283.5933.8
NEP-HIS: Business, Economic & Financial History794.76165.2220.7
NEP-HME: Heterodox Microeconomics330.65107.7832.5
NEP-HPE: History & Philosophy of Economics309.6262.6220.2
NEP-HRM: Human Capital & Human Resource Management295.0494.0531.8
NEP-IAS: Insurance Economics308.589.8329.1
NEP-ICT: Information & Communication Technologies128.9736.7228.4
NEP-IFN: International Finance205.6744.9221.8
NEP-IND: Industrial Organization181.9138.521.1
NEP-INO: Innovation732.47211.0528.8
NEP-INT: International Trade1199.92323.726.9
NEP-IPR: Intellectual Property Rights148.843.7329.3
NEP-IUE: Informal & Underground Economics153.8640.9126.5
NEP-KNM: Knowledge Management & Knowledge Economy195.4666.6234
NEP-LAB: Labour Economics1210.02359.7329.7
NEP-LAM: Central & South America237.7568.3128.7
NEP-LAW: Law & Economics292.5169.5223.7
NEP-LMA: Labor Markets - Supply, Demand, & Wages441.77126.3628.6
NEP-LTV: Unemployment, Inequality & Poverty237.166.6528.1
NEP-MAC: Macroeconomics4045.57798.5819.7
NEP-MFD: Microfinance141.5637.8526.7
NEP-MIC: Microeconomics573.4484.2914.6
NEP-MIG: Economics of Human Migration403.17140.9934.9
NEP-MKT: Marketing158.1648.330.5
NEP-MON: Monetary Economics1380.68296.0521.4
NEP-MST: Market Microstructure119.126.8722.5
NEP-NET: Network Economics207.2248.6123.4
NEP-NEU: Neuroeconomics84.7734.8741.1
NEP-OPM: Open Economy Macroeconomics390.587.7422.4
NEP-ORE: Operations Research377.2674.8319.8
NEP-PAY: Payment Systems & Financial Technology238.2364.3827
NEP-PBE: Public Economics631.5143.2722.6
NEP-PKE: Post Keynesian Economics217.3442.0619.3
NEP-POL: Positive Political Economics461.1999.4421.5
NEP-PPM: Project, Program & Portfolio Management107.9830.1627.9
NEP-PUB: Public Finance231.6951.3222.1
NEP-REG: Regulation349.6773.6321
NEP-RES: Resource Economics78.2622.5528.8
NEP-RMG: Risk Management427.8888.7820.7
NEP-SBM: Small Business Management405.37133.1932.8
NEP-SEA: South East Asia564.23140.6924.9
NEP-SOC: Social Norms & Social Capital338.08103.1230.5
NEP-SOG: Sociology of Economics106.8125.2723.6
NEP-SPO: Sports & Economics84.7310.5512.4
NEP-TID: Technology & Industrial Dynamics274.6975.427.4
NEP-TRA: Transition Economics903.67350.1738.7
NEP-TRE: Transport Economics200.8245.2522.5
NEP-TUR: Tourism Economics75.4529.8739.5
NEP-UPT: Utility Models & Prospect Theory362.184.2223.2
NEP-URE: Urban & Real Estate Economics1706.57459.5426.9

Female representation in Economics by cohort

Cohort is based on information listed in the RePEc Genealogy.

Cohort # authors # female share (%)
19735547.2
19745511.8
19757234.1
19767545.3
19786868.8
19795635.3
19807645.2
19818522.3
19828367.2
19831101110
1984811012.3
198510943.6
19861251612.8
1987121119
19881412215.6
19891471610.8
1990154149
19911742212.6
19921742715.5
19931953417.4
19941653018.1
19952193817.3
19962384117.2
19972223716.6
19982676122.8
19992875820.2
20003737620.3
20013458725.2
20023698523
20033607921.9
20043466819.6
20053939323.6
20063899624.6
200744411225.2
200847011424.2
200946413028
201045112227
201140310526
20124178520.3
20133579025.2
20143298626.1
20152857024.5
20162235424.2
20171813921.5
20181544428.5
20191183126.2
2020852428.2

Female representation in Economics by ranking

Proportion of females in 5-percentile groups taken from the rankings of economists, all-time publications and last 10 years of publications.

%ile All (%) 10Y (%)
1-158.8
2-2912.2
3-38.213.5
4-49.313
5-510.612.9
6-1013.818.8
11-1517.920.6
16-2020.223.8
21-2521.422.7
26-3024.224.1
31-4026.825.6
41-5027.228.1
51-100

The data presented here is experimental. It is based on a limited sample of the research output in Economics and Finance. Only material catalogued in RePEc is considered. For any citation based criterion, only works that could be parsed by the CitEc project are considered. For any ranking of people, only those registered with the RePEc Author Service can be taken into account. And for rankings of institutions, only those listed in EDIRC and claimed as affiliation by the respective, registered authors can be measured. Thus, this list is by no means based on a complete sample. You can help making this more comprehensive by encouraging more publications to be listed (instructions) and more authors to register (form). For more details on the various rankings that are available as well for documentation, follow this link.

Credits:

We do our best, but we cannot exclude errors.
IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.