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Female representation in Economics, as of April 2022

These statistics draw on the published economists registered with the RePEc Author Service. Gender attribution is performed through pattern matching with NamSor. A category is listed if it has at least 50 members.

Overall, 16889 of 64491 economists are female, or a proportion of 26.1%.

Listings by

Each table can be sorted by clicking on table headers.

Female representation in Economics by country

Attribution to country is based on affiliations. For economists with multiple affiliations, affiliation shares set by the economist are considered.

Country # authors # female share(%)
Algeria61.97914.5
Argentina357.7187.8824.5
Australia1529.94380.7224.8
Austria490.55100.3920.4
Bangladesh149.7417.1411.4
Belgium835.24212.1925.4
Bolivia70.5917.8425.2
Brazil824.8133.2516.1
Bulgaria236120.4251
Cameroun56.399.1816.2
Canada1658.73347.0220.9
Chile441.4365.914.9
China1341.34354.2826.4
Colombia663.68147.6522.2
Croatia167.18651.4
Czech Republic485.87158.5232.6
Denmark420.4399.3523.6
Ecuador84.315.518.3
Egypt98.134.3535
Estonia56.11933.8
Ethiopia60.6513.522.2
Finland248.8758.823.6
France3655.771175.6832.1
Germany3496.5871.6124.9
Ghana118.4810.58.8
Greece561.9127.5722.7
Hong Kong149.682617.3
Hungary312.5289.3928.6
India1124.54318.3128.3
Indonesia358.4288.0624.5
Iran141.151812.7
Ireland314.9299.8931.7
Israel219.8325.511.5
Italy3251.861060.9232.6
Japan1166.2148.8212.7
Kazakhstan53.051426.3
Luxembourg16841.8424.9
North Macedonia69.1831.545.5
Malaysia355.1288.9625
Mexico400.3375.718.9
Morocco83.0514.617.5
Netherlands1147.64259.4922.6
New Zealand278.5359.6421.4
Nigeria311.9858.0518.6
Norway459.6383.3618.1
Pakistan474.07104.8322.1
Peru227.2539.8317.5
Philippines155.955.4235.5
Poland677.03224.433.1
Portugal675.35243.7736
Romania1145.62665.8158.1
Russia1657.5734.6144.3
Saudi Arabia78.945.46.8
Singapore194.0139.7320.4
Slovakia135.3547.1134.8
Slovenia51.261223.4
South Africa365.36111.5730.5
South Korea367.8686.1623.4
Spain2399.58772.4832.1
Sweden711.69178.9425.1
Switzerland1012.58231.3622.8
Taiwan250.295622.3
Thailand124.1748.1438.7
Tunisia242.1973.8430.4
Turkey868.23223.0325.6
United Arab Emirates84.1312.7515.1
United Kingdom3782.82965.4625.5
Ukraine202.0973.8336.5
Uruguay126.0646.8537.1
United States11716.792616.7322.3
Viet Nam182.3647.8426.2

Female representation in Economics by US state

Attribution to state is based on affiliations. For economists with multiple affiliations, affiliation shares set by the economist are considered.

State # authors # female share (%)
Alabama (United States)90.3316.7118.4
Arizona (United States)106.7825.7524.1
California (United States)1131.9242.4821.4
Colorado (United States)132.828.0121
Connecticut (United States)224.7739.5117.5
District of Columbia (United States)2242.73596.3126.5
Florida (United States)230.3756.4924.5
Georgia (United States)288.6367.2123.2
Iowa (United States)83.6318.7522.4
Illinois (United States)522.9791.4917.4
Indiana (United States)253.0955.7522
Kansas (United States)67.0810.9516.3
Kentucky (United States)84.071619
Louisiana (United States)74.1213.3818
Massachusetts (United States)860.32193.122.4
Maryland (United States)223.2742.0318.8
Michigan (United States)298.2858.319.5
Minnesota (United States)169.135.7321.1
Missouri (United States)225.5254.9524.3
North Carolina (United States)306.4457.8218.8
New Hampshire (United States)58.8614.7925.1
New Jersey (United States)191.438.3320
New York (United States)967.28225.323.2
Ohio (United States)257.851.3719.9
Oklahoma (United States)82.221.8726.6
Oregon (United States)57.9516.528.4
Pennsylvania (United States)518.81120.9523.3
Rhode Island (United States)85.3615.518.1
South Carolina (United States)82.2216.520
Tennessee (United States)136.3727.4220.1
Texas (United States)479.64101.9621.2
Utah (United States)105.815.314.4
Virginia (United States)321.7562.4419.4
Washington (United States)94.8323.7825
Wisconsin (United States)156.0535.5322.7

Female representation in Economics by field

Field is determined by the proportion of papers announced through NEP that are in a particular field. Note that a paper may be is several fields.

Field # authors # female share (%)
NEP-ACC: Accounting & Auditing181.7250.3927.7
NEP-AFR: Africa344.1989.4125.9
NEP-AGE: Economics of Ageing342.15104.7230.6
NEP-AGR: Agricultural Economics1390.84400.4628.7
NEP-ARA: MENA - Middle East & North Africa363.35102.3528.1
NEP-BAN: Banking745.4182.8724.5
NEP-BEC: Business Economics466.1105.8622.7
NEP-BIG: Big Data163.9937.1322.6
NEP-CBA: Central Banking1255.73261.2320.8
NEP-CBE: Cognitive & Behavioural Economics409.31114.2927.9
NEP-CDM: Collective Decision-Making369.2480.5421.8
NEP-CFN: Corporate Finance283.1462.0521.9
NEP-CIS: Confederation of Independent States507.93236.7446.6
NEP-CMP: Computational Economics332.5369.6120.9
NEP-CNA: China272.4390.3733.1
NEP-COM: Industrial Competition721.29145.0120.1
NEP-CSE: Economics of Strategic Management431.62142.8233
NEP-CTA: Contract Theory & Applications190.6740.2721.1
NEP-CUL: Cultural Economics91.8135.7238.9
NEP-CWA: Central & Western Asia353.4188.5325
NEP-DCM: Discrete Choice Models213.5658.7227.4
NEP-DEM: Demographic Economics185.3782.644.5
NEP-DES: Economic Design79.4214.4218.1
NEP-DEV: Development756.88229.8630.3
NEP-DGE: Dynamic General Equilibrium1265.25238.4618.8
NEP-ECM: Econometrics820.58130.615.9
NEP-EDU: Education563.83187.633.2
NEP-EEC: European Economics669.91167.424.9
NEP-EFF: Efficiency & Productivity555.04153.1527.5
NEP-ENE: Energy Economics1355.8318.423.4
NEP-ENT: Entrepreneurship364.7191.4525
NEP-ENV: Environmental Economics1609.29428.1726.6
NEP-ETS: Econometric Time Series366.4155.3915.1
NEP-EUR: Microeconomic European Issues791.69290.0336.6
NEP-EVO: Evolutionary Economics154.9530.819.8
NEP-EXP: Experimental Economics1180.22327.8427.7
NEP-FDG: Financial Development & Growth328.6878.3623.8
NEP-FMK: Financial Markets249.7845.3318.1
NEP-FOR: Forecasting300.1768.2322.7
NEP-GEN: Gender103.4448.8547.2
NEP-GEO: Economic Geography549.91123.9722.5
NEP-GER: German Papers19048.7625.6
NEP-GRO: Economic Growth248.8346.3818.6
NEP-GTH: Game Theory617.21115.2418.6
NEP-HAP: Economics of Happiness132.8243.1932.5
NEP-HEA: Health Economics874.13291.0533.2
NEP-HIS: Business, Economic & Financial History836.57173.7420.7
NEP-HME: Heterodox Microeconomics308.4697.3331.5
NEP-HPE: History & Philosophy of Economics303.7359.8919.7
NEP-HRM: Human Capital & Human Resource Management273.9582.2830
NEP-IAS: Insurance Economics325.0893.6328.8
NEP-ICT: Information & Communication Technologies141.7437.1426.2
NEP-IFN: International Finance202.2642.0820.8
NEP-IND: Industrial Organization184.7238.4120.7
NEP-INO: Innovation700.95205.6729.3
NEP-INT: International Trade1249.29342.127.3
NEP-IPR: Intellectual Property Rights143.0739.6927.7
NEP-ISF: Islamic Finance211.1860.4828.6
NEP-IUE: Informal & Underground Economics159.7940.5125.3
NEP-KNM: Knowledge Management & Knowledge Economy183.9663.9834.7
NEP-LAB: Labour Economics1187.88363.3430.5
NEP-LAM: Central & South America229.2760.9326.5
NEP-LAW: Law & Economics308.7672.5323.4
NEP-LMA: Labor Markets - Supply, Demand, & Wages465.26137.4729.5
NEP-LTV: Unemployment, Inequality & Poverty233.4461.4626.3
NEP-MAC: Macroeconomics4238.1841.2919.8
NEP-MFD: Microfinance136.3436.3226.6
NEP-MIC: Microeconomics587.6687.6414.9
NEP-MIG: Economics of Human Migration397.7138.5334.8
NEP-MKT: Marketing142.2545.1231.7
NEP-MON: Monetary Economics1431.27303.1621.1
NEP-MST: Market Microstructure112.3525.522.7
NEP-NET: Network Economics206.3447.4623
NEP-NEU: Neuroeconomics84.1634.7341.2
NEP-OPM: Open Economy Macroeconomics388.5189.723
NEP-ORE: Operations Research431.4282.4619.1
NEP-PAY: Payment Systems & Financial Technology277.7271.0625.5
NEP-PBE: Public Economics626.43139.1822.2
NEP-PKE: Post Keynesian Economics221.5543.6419.7
NEP-POL: Positive Political Economics450.3899.7322.1
NEP-PPM: Project, Program & Portfolio Management97.2429.9130.7
NEP-PUB: Public Finance231.2246.2420
NEP-REG: Regulation367.7580.4321.8
NEP-RES: Resource Economics73.3818.8425.6
NEP-RMG: Risk Management431.4587.6120.3
NEP-SBM: Small Business Management427.06133.9331.3
NEP-SEA: South East Asia610.28152.1124.9
NEP-SOC: Social Norms & Social Capital335.6101.2630.1
NEP-SOG: Sociology of Economics108.9127.7225.4
NEP-SPO: Sports & Economics86.3310.6912.3
NEP-TID: Technology & Industrial Dynamics314.9584.2626.7
NEP-TRA: Transition Economics883.5345.7339.1
NEP-TRE: Transport Economics202.5349.2224.3
NEP-TUR: Tourism Economics72.0125.2535
NEP-UPT: Utility Models & Prospect Theory370.3281.5722
NEP-URE: Urban & Real Estate Economics1831.16493.4726.9

Female representation in Economics by cohort

Cohort is based on information listed in the RePEc Genealogy.

Cohort # authors # female share (%)
19735758.7
19745711.7
19757534
19767645.2
19787168.4
19795735.2
19807845.1
19818622.3
19828367.2
1983113119.7
198481911.1
198510943.6
19861261612.6
1987124129.6
19881442315.9
19891521610.5
1990156159.6
19911732212.7
19921782715.1
19931963417.3
19941663018
19952223817.1
19962394117.1
19972243616
19982696122.6
19992905920.3
20003767720.4
20013488825.2
20023768723.1
20033637921.7
20043496819.4
20053999423.5
20063959624.3
200745111425.2
200847611423.9
200946713027.8
201045412527.5
201141510826
20124258620.2
20133729826.3
20143459026
20153027324.1
20162365724.1
20172024220.7
20181754928
20191343425.3
20201153429.5
2021601525

Female representation in Economics by ranking

Proportion of females in 5-percentile groups taken from the rankings of economists, all-time publications and last 10 years of publications.

%ile All (%) 10Y (%)
1-14.910.2
2-29.111.1
3-37.513.7
4-410.814.4
5-510.316.2
6-1014.418.1
11-1517.721.7
16-2019.923
21-2522.823
26-3024.825.3
31-402625.8
41-5027.127.6
51-100

The data presented here is experimental. It is based on a limited sample of the research output in Economics and Finance. Only material catalogued in RePEc is considered. For any citation based criterion, only works that could be parsed by the CitEc project are considered. For any ranking of people, only those registered with the RePEc Author Service can be taken into account. And for rankings of institutions, only those listed in EDIRC and claimed as affiliation by the respective, registered authors can be measured. Thus, this list is by no means based on a complete sample. You can help making this more comprehensive by encouraging more publications to be listed (instructions) and more authors to register (form). For more details on the various rankings that are available as well for documentation, follow this link.

Credits:

We do our best, but we cannot exclude errors.
IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.