The World Bank
Policy Research Working Paper Series
- 1594 Why have some Indian states done better than others at reducing rural poverty?
by Datt, Gaurav & Ravallion, Martin
- 1593 Rural finance for growth and poverty alleviation
by Qureshi, Saeed & Nabi, Ijaz & Faruqee, Rashid
- 1592 The stockmarket as a source of finance : a comparison of U.S. and Indian firms
by Samuel, Cherian
- 1591 Competition in network industries
by Klein, Michael
- 1590 The Latvian banking crisis : lessons learned
by Fleming, Alex & Talley, Samuel
- 1589 The analysis of emerging policy issues in development finance
by Goopu, Sudarshan
- 1588 Social insurance in the transition to a market economy : theoretical issues with application to Moldova
by Mabbett, Deborah
- 1587 Payments and finance problems in the Commonwealth of Independent States
by Michalopoulos, Constantine
- 1586 Did external barriers cause the marginalization of sub-Saharan Africa in world trade?
by Amjadi, Azita & Reinke, Ulrich & Yeats, Alexander
- 1585 Public finances and economic transition
by Barbone, Luca & Polackova, Hana
- 1584 Price support at any price? Costs and benefits of alternative agricultural policies for Poland
by Orlowski, Witold M.
- 1583 Trade preferential agreements in Latin America : an ex-ante assessment
by Michaely, Michael
- 1582 Stock market development and long-run growth
by Levine, Ross & Zervos, Sara
- 1581 Where has all the education gone?
by Pritchett, Lant
- 1580 Indonesia's cocoa boom : hands-off policy encourages smallholder dynamism
by Takamasa Akiyama & Akihiko Nishio
- 1579 Different strategies of transition to a market economy : how do they work in practice?
by Dabrowski, Marek
- 1578 Stock market and investment : the governance role of the market
by Samuel, Cherian
- 1577 The peace dividend : military spending cuts and economic growth
by Knight, Malcolm & Loayza, Norman & Villanueva, Delano
- 1576 Rural poverty in Ecuador : a qualitative assessment
by Hentschel, Jesko & Waters, William F. & Vandever Webb, Anna Kathryn
- 1575 Inflation, growth, and central banks : theory and evidence
by De Gregorio, Jose
- 1574 Bank regulation : the case of the missing model
by Caprio, Gerard Jr.
- 1573 North-South customs unions and international capital mobility
by Fernandez-Arias, Eduardo & Spiegel, Mark M.
- 1572 Averting the old-age crisis : technical annex
by Palacios, Robert J.
- 1571 Export prospects of Middle Eastern countries : a post-Uruguay Round analysis
by Yeats, Alexander
- 1570 Protecting the old and promoting growth : a defense of averting the old age crisis
by James, Estelle
- 1569 Improving water resource management in Bangladesh
by Faruqee, Rashid & Choudhry, Yusuf A.
- 1568 Determinants of diarrheal disease in Jakarta
by Alberini, Anna & Eskeland, Gunnar S. & Krupnick, Alan & McGranahan, Gordon
- 1567 Population growth, factor accumulation, and productivity
by Pritchett, Lant
- 1566 Liquidity, banks, and markets : effects of financial development on banks and the maturity of financial claims
by Diamond, Douglas W.
- 1565 Housing finance in transition economies : the early years in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union
by Renaud, Bertrand M.
- 1564 From plan to market : patterns of transition
by de Melo, Martha & Denizer, Cevdet & Gelb, Alan
- 1563 Equity and growth in developing countries : old and new perspectives on the policy issues
by Bruno, Michael & Ravallion, Martin & Squire, Lyn
- 1562 Catching up with Eastern Europe? The European Union's Mediterranean free trade initiative
by Hoekman, Bernard & Djankov, Simeon
- 1561 Income inequality and aggregate saving : the cross-country evidence
by Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus & Serven, Luis
- 13970 Policy research working papers : catalog of numbers 1201-1400
- 1560 Trade and fluctuations
by Kraay, Aart & Ventura, Jaume
- 1559 Have transport costs contributed to the relative decline of sub-Saharan African exports? Some preliminary empirical evidence
by Amjadi, Azita & Yeats, Alexander J.
- 1558 In search of price rigidities : recent sector evidence from Argentina
by Morisset, Jacques & Revoredo, Cesar
- 1557 Electricity demand in Asia and the effects on energy supply and the investment environment
by Masayasu Ishguro & Takamasa Akiyama
- 1556 Workers in transition
by Rutkowski, Michael
- 1555 Capital markets, financial intermediaries, and corporate governance : an empirical assessment of the top ten voucher funds in the Czech Republic
by Egerer, Roland
- 1554 Rationing can backfire : the day without a car in Mexico City
by Eskeland, Gunnar S. & Feyzioglu, Tarhan
- 1553 Spatial correlations in panel data
by Driscoll, John & Kraay, Aart
- 1552 Unemployment insurance and duration of unemployment : evidence from Slovenia's transition
by Vodopivec, Milan
- 1551 Sequencing social security, pension, and insurance reform
by Vittas, Dimitri
- 1550 Governance and returns on investment : an empirical investigation
by Isham, Jonathan & Kaufmann, Daniel & Pritchett, Lant
- 1549 The forgotten rationale for policy reform : the productivity of investment projects
by Isham, Jonathan & Kaufmann,Daniel
- 1548 The relationship between farm size and efficiency in South African agriculture
by van Zyl, Johan & Binswanger, Hans & Thirtle, Colin
- 1547 Testing the induced innovation hypothesis in South African agriculture (an error correction approach)
by Thirtle, Colin & Townsend, Robert & van Zyl, Johan
- 1546 Concessions of busways to the private sector : the Sao Paulo metropolitan region experience
by Rebelo, Jorge M. & Benvenuto, Pedro P.
- 1545 International commodity control : retrospect and prospect
by Gilbert, Christopher L.
- 1544 Economic performance in small open economies : the Caribbean experience, 1980-1992
by McCarthy, F. Desmond & Zanalda, Giovanni
- 1543 The combined incidence of taxes and public expenditures in the Philippines
by Devarajan, Shantayanan & Hossain, Shaikh I.
- 1542 The development of industrial pensions in the United States in the twentieth century
by Williamson, Samuel H.
- 1541 Deposit insurance
by White, Eugene
- 1540 Thrift deposit institutions in Europe and the United States
by Vittas, Dimitri
- 1539 The rise of securities markets : what can government do?
by Sylla, Richard
- 1538 Contingent liability in banking : useful policy for developing countries?
by Saunders, Anthony & Wilson, Berry
- 1537 Before main banks : a selective historical overview of Japan's prewar financialsystem
by Packer, Frank
- 1536 Free banking : the Scottish experience as a model for emerging economies
by Kroszner, Randall
- 1535 Financial history : lessons of the past for reformers of the present
by Caprio Jr., Gerard & Vittas, Dimitri
- 1534 The evolution of central banking
by Capie, Forrest
- 1533 Universal banking and the financing of industrial development
by Calomiris, Charles W.
- 1532 Regulation and bank stability: Canada and the United States, 1870-1980
by Bordo, Michael
- 1531 Some new evidence on determinants of foreign direct investment in developing countries
by Singh, Harinder & Kwang W. Jun
- 1530 Poverty, inequality, and social policy in transition economies
by Milanovic, Branko
- 1529 Interest rates, credit, and economic adjustment in Nicaragua
by Lachler, Ulrich
- 1528 Developing commercial law in transition economies : examples from Hungary and Russia
by Gray, Cheryl W. & Hendley, Kathryn
- 1527 Foreign direct investment, other capital flows, and current account deficits : what causes what?
by Fry, Maxwell J. & Claessens,Constantijn A. & Burridge, Peter & Blanchet, Marie-Christine
- 1526 Do we face a global"capital shortage"?
by Qureshi, Zia
- 1525 Is Ethiopia's debt sustainable?
by Ghani, Ejaz & Hyoungsoo Zang
- 1524 Employment and wage effects of trade liberalization : the case of Mexican manufacturing
by Revenga, Ana
- 1523 Does more for the poor mean less for the poor? The politics of tagging
by Gelbach, Jonah B. & Pritchett, Lant H.
- 1522 Divergence, big time
by Pritchett, Lant
- 1521 Political regimes, trade, and labor policies in developing countries
by Banerji, Arup & Ghanem, Hafez
- 1520 Regulating telecommunications in developing countries : outcomes, incentives, and commitment
by Galal, Ahmed & Nauriyal, Bharat
- 1519 Payment systems in Latin America : a tale of two countries - Colombia and El Salvador
by Listfield, Robert & Montes-Negret, Fernando
- 1518 Sustainability of private capital flows to developing countries : Is a generalized reversal likely?
by Hernandez, Leonardo & Rudolph, Heinz
- 1517 Inflation crises and long-run growth
by Bruno, Michael & Easterly, William
- 1516 Contractual savings for housing : How suitable are they for transitional economies?
by Lea, Michael J. & Renaud, Bertrand
- 1515 Indonesia - Labor market policies and international competitiveness
by Agrawal, Nisha
- 1514 The impact of minimum wages in Mexico and Colombia
by Bell, Linda A.
- 1513 The World Trade Organization, the European Union, and the Arab World : trade policy priorities and pitfalls
by Hoekman, Bernard
- 1512 The World Bank primer on reinsurance
by McIsaac, Donald A. & Babbel, David F.
- 1511 Default risk and the effective duration of bonds
by Babbel, David F. & Merrill, Craig & Panning, William
- 1510 Hungary's bankruptcy experience, 1992-93
by Gray, Cheryl & Schlorke, Sabine & Szanyi, Miklos
- 1509 Saving in transition economies : the summary report
by Conway, Patrick
- 1508 Small and medium-size enterprises in economic development : possiblities for research and policy
by Winter, Sidney G.
- 1507 Coping with too much of a good thing : policy responses for large capital inflows in developing countries
by Goldstein, Morris
- 1506 Restructuring regulation of the rail industry for the public interest
by Kessides, Ioannis N. & Willig, Robert D.
- 1505 The cross-section of stock returns : evidence from emerging markets
by Claessens, Stijn & Dasgupta, Susmita & Glen, Jack
- 1504 Savings and education: a life-cycle model applied to a panel of 74 countries
by Morisset, Jacques & Revoredo, Cesar
- 1503 Africa's growth tragedy : a retrospective, 1960-89
by Easterly, William & Levine, Ross
- 1502 Active labor market policies in the OECD and in selected transition economies
by Lehmann, Hartmut
- 1501 Are partner-country statistics useful for estimating"missing"trade data?
by Yeats, Alexander J.
- 1500 Agricultural trade liberalization in the Uruguay Round : one step forward, one step back?
by Ingco, Merlinda D.
- 1499 The dynamics of poverty : why some people escape from poverty and others don't - an African case study
by Grootaert, Christiaan & Kanbur, Ravi & Gi-Taik Oh
- 1498 Decentralized rural development and enhanced community participation : a case study from Northeast Brazil
by van Zyl, Johan & Barbosa, Tulio & Parker, Andrew N. & Sonn, Loretta
- 1497 Public choices between lifesaving programs : how important are lives saved?
by Cropper, Maureen L. & Subramanian, Uma
- 1496 Reviving project appraisal at the World Bank
by Devarajan, Shantayanan & Squire, Lyn & Suthiwart-Narueput, Sethaput
- 1495 Raising household energy prices in Poland : who gains? who loses?
by Freund, Caroline L. & Wallich, Christine I.
- 1494 Adjustment and poverty in Mexican agriculture : how farmers'wealth affects supply response
by Lopez, Ramon & Nash, John & Stanton, Julie
- 1493 Migration and the skill composition of the labor force : the impact of trade liberalization in developing countries
by Lopez, Ramon & Schiff, Maurice
- 1492 Trade policies, macroeconomic adjustment, and manufactured exports : the Latin American experience
by Rajapatirana, Sarath
- 1491 Equilibrium incentives for adopting cleaner technology under emissions pricing
by Kennedy, Peter W. & Laplante, Benoit
- 1490 Trade reform design as a signal to foreign investors : lessons for economies in transition
by Bond, Eric & Chiu, Steve & Estache, Antonio
- 1489 Educational attainments in developing countries : new estimates and projections disaggregated by gender
by Ahuja, Vinod & Filmer, Deon
- 1488 Estimating the world at work
by Filmer, Deon
- 1487 Decomposing social indicators using distributional data
by Bidani, Benu & Ravallion, Martin
- 1486 The emerging legal framework for private sector development in Viet Nam's transitional economy
by Pham van Thuyet
- 1485 Aggregate agricultural supply response in developing countries : a survey of selected issues
by Schiff, Maurice & Montenegro, Claudio E.
- 1484 The Uruguay Round and South Asia : an overview of the impact and opportunities
by Majd, Nader
- 1483 Costa Rican pension system : options for reform
by Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Schwarz, Anita
- 1482 A measure of stock market integration for developed and emerging markets
by Korajczyk, Robert A.
- 1481 Corporate control in Central Europe and Russia : should banks own shares?
by Dittus, Peter & Prowse, Stephen
- 1480 Debt as a control device in transitional economies : the experiences of Hungary and Poland
by Baer, Herbert L. & Gray, Cheryl W.
- 1479 Is there a commercial case for tropical timber certification?
by Varangis, Panayotis N.*Crossley, Rachel*Braga, C
- 1478 Promoting growth in Sri Lanka : lessons from East Asia
by Ahmed, Sadiq & Ranjan, Priya
- 1477 Cities without land markets : location and land use in the socialist city
by Bertaud, Alain & Renaud, Bertrand
- 1476 Public spending and the poor : what we know, what we need to know
by van de Walle, Dominique
- 1475 Decentralization : the way forward for rural development?
by Parker, Andrew N.
- 1474 Are stable agreements for sharing international river waters now possible?
by Kilgour, D. Marc & Dinar, Ariel
- 1473 The surge in capital inflows to developing countries : prospects and policy response
by Fernandez-Arias, Eduardo & Montiel, Peter J.
- 1472 Fiscal and monetary contraction in Chile : a rational-expectations approach
by Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus & Serven, Luis
- 1471 Pension reform and growth
by Corsetti, Giancarlo & Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus
- 1470 Pensions systems and reform : country experiences and research issues
by Arrau, Patricio & Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus
- 1469 The role of labor unions in fostering economic development
by Pencavel, John
- 1468 Government's role in Pakistan agriculture : major reforms are needed
by Faruquee, Rashid
- 1467 Beyond the Uruguay Round : the implications of an Asian free trade area
by Lewis, Jeffrey D. & Robinson, Sherman & Zhi Wang
- 1466 Ownership and financing of infrastructure : historical perspective
by Jacobson, Charles D. & Tarr, Joel A.
- 1465 Post trade liberalization policy and institutional challenges in Latin America and the Caribbean
by Rajapatirana, Sarath
- 1464 How does the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) affect Central America?
by Leamer, Edward E. & Guerra, Alfonso & Kaufman, Martin & Segura, Boris
- 1463 Rural nonfarm employment : a survey
by Lanjouw, Jean O. & Lanjouw, Peter
- 1462 Stock market development and financial intermediaries : stylized facts
by Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Levine, Ross
- 1461 Stock market development and firm financing choices
by Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav
- 1460 Efficiency and equity considerations in pricing and allocating irrigation water
by Tsur, Yacov & Dinar, Ariel
- 1459 Pension funds in Central Europe and Russia : their prospects and potential role in corporate governance
by Vittas, Dimitri & Michelitsch, Roland
- 1458 Credit policies : lessons from East Asia
by Vittas, Dimitri & Yoon Je Cho
- 1457 Does decentralization increase spending on public infrastructure?
by Estache, Antonio & Sinha, Sarbajit
- 1456 Equity markets, transaction costs, and capital accumulation
by Bencivenga, Valerie R. & Smith, Bruce D. & Starr, Ross M.
- 1455 Tentative first steps : an assessment of the Uruguay Round agreement on services
by Hoekman, Bernard
- 1454 Child labor : a review
by Grootaert, Christiaan & Kanbur, Ravi
- 1453 Air pollution and mortality : results from Santiago, Chile
by Ostr, Bart & Sanchez, Jose Miguel & Aranda, Carlos & Eskeland, Gunnar S.
- 1452 The 1985-94 global real estate cycle : its casues and consequences
by Renaud, Bertrand
- 1451 Tunisia's insurance sector
by Vittas, Dimitri
- 1450 Social safety net and the poor during the transition : the case of Bulgaria
by Hassan, Fareed M. A. & Peters, R. Kyle, Jr.
- 1449 Worker displacement during the transition : experience from Slovenia
by Orazem, Peter & Vodopivec, Milan & Wu, Ruth
- 1448 Environmental regulation and development : a cross-country empirical analysis
by Mody, Ashoka & Roy, Subhendu & Wheeler, David & Dasgupta, Susmita
- 1447 Environmental inspections and emissions of the pulp and paper industry : the case of Quebec
by Laplante, Benoit & Rilstone, Paul
- 1446 Review of integrated approaches to river basin, planning, development and management
by Lee, Donna J. & Dinar, Ariel
- 1445 Human capital and industry wage structure in Guatemala
by Sakellariou, Chris N.
- 1444 Roads, lands, markets, and deforestation : a spatial model of land use in Belize
by Chomitz, Kenneth M. & Gray, David A.
- 1443 Policy-based finance, financial regulation, and financial sector development in Japan
by Vittas, Dimitri & Akihiko Kawaura
- 1442 Energy price increases in developing countries : case studies of Colombia, Ghana, Indonesia, Malaysia, Turkey, and Zimbabwe
by Hope, Einar & Singh, Balbir
- 1441 The significance of credits and subsidies in Russian agricultural reform
by Galbi, Douglas
- 1440 Poverty and social transfers in Poland
by Grootaert, Christiaan
- 1439 Nontariff barriers Africa faces : what did the Uruguay Round accomplish, and what remains to be done?
by Amjadi, Azita & Yeats, Alexander
- 1438 Trade reform, efficiency, and growth
by Ghani, Ejaz & Jayarajah, Carl
- 1437 Travel mode substitution in Sao Paulo : estimates and implications for air pollution control
by Swait, Joffre & Eskeland, Gunnar S.
- 1436 An empirical model of sunk costs and the decision to export
by Roberts, Mark J. & Tybout, James R.
- 1435 The political economy of formal sector pay and employment in developing countries
by Banerji, Arup & Campos, J. Edgardo & Sabot, Richard H.
- 1434 Government credit policy and industrial performance : Japanese machine tool producers, 1963-91
by Calomiris, Charles W. & Himmelberg, Charles P.
- 1433 Enterprise restructuring in Eastern Europe : how much? how fast? where? - preliminary evidence from trade data
by Hoekman, Bernard & Pohl, Gerhard
- 1432 Using financial futures in trading and risk management
by Mas, Ignacio & Saa-Requejo, Jesus
- 1431 The industrial pollution projection system
by Hettige, Hemamala & Martin, Paul & Singh, Manjula & Wheeler,David R.
- 1430 Intergovernmental fiscal relations and poverty alleviation in Viet Nam
by Bird, Richard M. & Litvack, Jennie I. & Rao, M. Govinda
- 1429 The World Trade Organization's agreement on government procurement : expanding disciplines, declining membership?
by Hoekman, Bernard & Mavroidis, Petros C.
- 1428 Short-term supply responde to a devaluation : a model's implications for primary commodity-exporting developing countries
by Boccara, Bruno & Nsengiyumva, Fabien
- 1427 Corporate governance and equity prices : evidence from the Czech and Slovak Republics
by Claessens, Stijn
- 1426 Russian unemployment : its magnitude, characteristics, and regional dimensions
by Commander, Simon & Yemtsov, Ruslan
- 1425 On the intersectoral migration of agricultural labor
by Larson, Donald & Mundlak, Yair
- 1424 Terms-of-trade shocks and optimal investment : another look at the Laursen-Metzler effect
by Serven, Luis
- 1423 The role of commercial banks in enterprise restructuring in Central and Eastern Europe
by Long, Millard & Rutkowska, Izabela
- 1422 Efficiency in Bulgaria's schools : a nonparametric study
by Bogetic, Zeljko & Chattophadyay, Sajal
- 1421 Distribution of income and the income tax burden in Bulgaria
by Bogetic, Zeljko & Hassan, Fareed M. A.
- 1420 Legislative frameworks used to fosterpetroleum development
by Onorato, William T.
- 1419 Industry structure and regulation
by Stewart-Smith, Martin C.
- 1418 The impact of labor market regulations
by Squire, Lyn & Suthiwart-Narueput, Sethaput
- 1417 Uncertainty and global warming : an option - pricing approach to policy
by Baranzini, Andrea & Chesney, Marc & Morisset, Jacques
- 1416 Informal regulation of industrial pollution in developing countries : evidence from Indonesia
by Pargal, Sheoli & Wheeler, David
- 1415 China's GDP in U.S. dollars based on purchasing power parity
by Ruoen, Ren & Chen Kai
- 1414 The World Bank and legal technical assistance : initial lessons
by The World Bank Legal Department
- 1413 Endogenous distortions in product and labor markets
by Rama, Martin & Tabellini, Guido
- 1412 Foreign technology imports and economic growth in developing countries
by Xiaoming Zhang & Heng-fu Zou
- 1411 Income inequality, welfare, and poverty : an illustration using Ukranian data
by Kakwani, Nanak
- 1410 Macroeconomic effects of terms-of-trade shocks : the case of oil-exporting countries
by Spatafora, Nikola & Warner, Andrew
- 1409 Restructuring Uganda's debt : the commercial debt buy - back operation
by Kapoor, Kapil
- 1408 Macroeconomic management and intergovernmental relations in China
by Jun Ma
- 1407 Pakistan's agriculture sector : is 3 to 4 percent annual growth sustainable?
by Faruqee, Rashid
- 1406 Structural breaks and long-run trends in commodity prices
by Leon, Javier & Soto, Raimundo
- 1405 Growth and poverty in rural India
by Ravallion, Martin & Datt, Gaurav
- 1392 Some economic consequences of the transition from civil war to peace
by Azam, Jean-Paul & Bevan, David & Collier, Paul & Dercon, Stefan & Gunning, Jan & Pradhan, Sanjay
- 13310 Policy, Research working paper series : numbers 1281-1302
- 13009 Policy, Research working paper series : numbers 1248-1280
- 1404 The Republic of Korea's small and medium size enterprises and their support systems
by Linsu Kim & Nugent, Jeffrey B.
- 1403 Small and medium-size enterprise support policies in Japan
by Motoshige Itoh & Shujiro Urata
- 1402 Indonesia's small and medium-size exporters and their support systems
by Berry, Albert & Levy, Brian
- 1401 Colombia's small and medium-size exporters and their support systems
by Berry, Albert & Escandon, Jose
- 1400 Technical and marketing support systems for successful small and medium-size enterprises in four countries
by Levy, Brian & Berry, Albert & Motoshige Itoh & Linsu Kim & Nugent, Jeffrey & Shujiro Urata
- 1399 How important to India's poor is the urban - rural composition of growth?
by Ravaillon, Martin & Datt, Gaurav