Citations for "Economies of Scope"
by Panzar, John C & Willig, Robert D
- Magda Bianco, 1997. "Diversification and Synergies: Effects on Profitability," STICERD - Economics of Industry Papers 17, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
- Jean Gadrey & Faïz Gallouj, 1998.
"The Provider-Customer Interface in Business and Professional Services,"
The Service Industries Journal,
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(2), pages 01-15, April.
- Jean Gadrey & Faïz Gallouj, 1998. "The Provider-Customer Interface in Business and Professional Services," Post-Print halshs-01133184, HAL.
- Jean Gadrey & Faïz Gallouj, 1992. "The Provider-Customer Interface in Business and Professional Services: Moment of Truth, Moment of Thrust," Post-Print halshs-01113656, HAL.
- H. Leleu & S. Blancard & J.Ph. Boussemart, 2011.
"Measuring potential gains from specialization under non-convex technologies,"
- S Blancard & J-P Boussemart & H Leleu, 2011. "Measuring potential gains from specialization under non-convex technologies," Journal of the Operational Research Society, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 62(10), pages 1871-1880, October.
- Stéphane Blancard & Jean-Philippe Boussemart & Hervé Leleu, 2009. "Measuring potential gains from specialization under non-convex technologies," Working Papers 2009-ECO-02, IESEG School of Management.
- Seong-Sang Lee & Yeonbae Kim, 2009. "The Impact of Efficiency Parameters on Firms Innovative Activities: Evidence from Korean Firm-level data," TEMEP Discussion Papers 200924, Seoul National University; Technology Management, Economics, and Policy Program (TEMEP), revised Nov 2009.
- Gomes, Joao F & Livdan, Dmitry, 2002. "Optimal Diversification," CEPR Discussion Papers 3461, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Clougherty, Joseph A., 2004. "Integrating Industrial Organization and International Business to Explain the Cross-National Domestic Airline Merger Phenomenon," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 19, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
- Norman, Patricia M. & Artz, Kendall W. & Martinez, Richard J., 2007. "Does it pay to be different? Competitive non-conformity under different regulatory regimes," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 60(11), pages 1135-1143, November.
- Gaudin, Germain & Saavedra, Claudia, 2014. "Ex ante margin squeeze tests in the telecommunications industry: What is a reasonably efficient operator?," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 157-172.
- Dieleman, Marleen & Sachs, Wladimir M., 2008. "Economies of connectedness: Concept and application," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 270-285, September.
- Fukui, Yoshitaka & Ushijima, Tatsuo, 2011. "What drives the profitability of Japanese multi-business corporations? A variance components analysis," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 1-11, June.
- Chen, Chiung-Jung & Yu, Chwo-Ming Joseph, 2012. "Managerial ownership, diversification, and firm performance: Evidence from an emerging market," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 518-534.
- Améziane Ferguene & Abderraouf Hsaini, 1998. "Organisation productive flexible et dynamique d'industrialisation à échelle locale : le système de spécialisation souple d'El-Jem (Tunisie)," Revue Tiers Monde, Programme National Persée, vol. 39(156), pages 905-921.
- Wilson, Tetevi Bahun & Amavilah, Voxi Heinrich, 2007. "The Economic Value of Industrial Minerals and Rocks for Developing Countries: A Discussion of Key Issues," MPRA Paper 2214, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Schmiedeberg, Claudia, 2008. "Complementarities of innovation activities: An empirical analysis of the German manufacturing sector," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(9), pages 1492-1503, October.
- Robert A. Pollak, 2013. "Allocating Household Time: When Does Efficiency Imply Specialization?," NBER Working Papers 19178, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Faïz Gallouj, 1995. "Le processus de production de l'innovation dans les service de conseil," Post-Print halshs-01114039, HAL.
- Donatella Porrini & Giovanni B. Ramello, 2005.
"Competition in banking: switching costs and the limits of antitrust enforcement,"
in: Law and the State, chapter 13
Edward Elgar Publishing.
- Giovanni B. Ramello & Donatella Porrini, 2004. "Competition in Banking: Switching Costs and the Limits of Antitrust Enforcement," LIUC Papers in Economics 153, Cattaneo University (LIUC).
- Biener, Christian & Eling, Martin & Jia, Ruo, 2016. "The Roles of Industry Idiosyncrasy, Cost Efficiency, and Risk in Internationalization: Evidence from the Insurance Industry," Working Papers on Finance 1602, University of St. Gallen, School of Finance.
- Jonathan R. Clark & Robert S. Huckman, 2012. "Broadening Focus: Spillovers, Complementarities, and Specialization in the Hospital Industry," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 58(4), pages 708-722, April.
- Singbo, Alphonse G. & Emvalomatis, Grigorios & Alfons, Oude Lansink, 2013. "Assessing the impact of crop specialization on farms’ performance in vegetables farming in Benin: a non-neutral stochastic frontier approach," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 149172, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
- Federico Ciliberto & John C. Panzar, 2011.
"Outsourcing and Vertical Integration in a Competitive Industry,"
Southern Economic Journal,
Southern Economic Association, vol. 77(4), pages 885-900, April.
- Ciliberto, Federico & Panzar, John, 2009. "Outsourcing and Vertical Integration in a Competitive Industry," MPRA Paper 18534, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Albert, Pierre & Ghassan, Hassan B. & Huiban, Jean Pierre & Martin, Michel, 1992.
"L'Industrie Laitière Française: Modèles d'Entreprises et Formes de Concurrence/Coordination Inter-Firmes
[French Dairy Industry: Enterprise models and Inter-Firms Competition/Coordination Forms]," MPRA Paper 60457, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Goldberg, Victor P., 1983. "Production functions, Transactions Costs and the New Institutionalism," Working Papers 229120, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
- Patricia Triunfo, 2001. "Economías de escala y de alcance de las instituciones de asistencia médica colectiva en Uruguay," Documentos de Trabajo (working papers) 1201, Department of Economics - dECON.
- Podinovski, Victor V. & Kuosmanen, Timo, 2011. "Modelling weak disposability in data envelopment analysis under relaxed convexity assumptions," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 211(3), pages 577-585, June.
- Angel Prieto & José L. Zofio & Inmaculada Alvarez, 2009. "Economías de escala, densidad y alcance en la provisión pública de infraestructura básica municipal," Hacienda Pública Española, IEF, vol. 190(3), pages 59-94, September.
- Rezvanian, Rasoul & Mahdian, Seyed & Elyasiani, Elyas, 1996. "Economics of scale and scope in small depository institutions: Evidence from U.S. cooperative banks," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 39-54.
- Kee, Robert, 2008. "The sufficiency of product and variable costs for production-related decisions when economies of scope are present," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 114(2), pages 682-696, August.
- Chen, Yi-Min, 2010. "The continuing debate on firm performance: A multilevel approach to the IT sectors of Taiwan and South Korea," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 63(5), pages 471-478, May.
- Villalonga, Belen, 2000. "Does Diversification Cause the â€œDiversification Discountâ€ ?," University of California at Los Angeles, Anderson Graduate School of Management qt40v212gm, Anderson Graduate School of Management, UCLA.
- Blancard, Stéphane & Boussemart, Jean-Philippe & Chavas, Jean-Paul & Leleu, Hervé, 2016. "Potential gains from specialization and diversification further to the reorganization of activities," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 60-68.
- Gao, Wenlian & Chou, Julia, 2015. "Innovation efficiency, global diversification, and firm value," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 278-298.
- Harkonen, Janne & Haapasalo, Harri & Hanninen, Kai, 2015. "Productisation: A review and research agenda," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 164(C), pages 65-82.
- Ernesto Somma, .
"The Effect of Incomplete Information about Future Technological Opportunities on Pre-Emption,"
95/41, Department of Economics, University of York.
- Somma, Ernesto, 1999. "The effect of incomplete information about future technological opportunities on pre-emption," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 17(6), pages 765-799, August.
- David Bryce & Sidney Winter, 2006.
"A General Inter-Industry Relatedness Index,"
06-31, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
- Troels Kristensen & Peter Bogetoft & Kjeld Pedersen, 2010. "Potential gains from hospital mergers in Denmark," Health Care Management Science, Springer, vol. 13(4), pages 334-345, December.
- Fukui, Yoshitaka & Ushijima, Tatsuo, 2007. "Corporate diversification, performance, and restructuring in the largest Japanese manufacturers," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 303-323, September.
- Kwon, Oh Sang & Yun, Won-Cheol, 2003. "Measuring economies of scope for cogeneration systems in Korea: a nonparametric approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 331-338, July.
- Leppälä, Samuli & Desrochers, Pierre, 2010. "The division of labor need not imply regional specialization," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 74(1-2), pages 137-147, May.
- Juan Carlos Bárcena-Ruiz & María Begoña Garzón, 2003.
"Mixed Duopoly, Merger and Multiproduct Firms,"
Journal of Economics,
Springer, vol. 80(1), pages 27-42, 08.
- Gambardella, Alfonso & Torrisi, Salvatore, 1998. "Does technological convergence imply convergence in markets? Evidence from the electronics industry," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(5), pages 445-463, September.
- Gary Ferrier & Hervé Leleu & James Moises & Vivian Valdmanis, 2013.
"The Focus Efficiency of U.S. Hospitals,"
Atlantic Economic Journal,
International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 41(3), pages 241-263, September.
- Oliver, Matthew E., 2015. "Economies of scale and scope in expansion of the U.S. natural gas pipeline network," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(PB), pages 265-276.
- Gary D. Ferrier & Hervé Leleu & James Moises & Vivian Valdmanis, 2009. "The Size and Service Offering Efficiencies of U.S. Hospitals," Working Papers 2009-ECO-09, IESEG School of Management.
- Christian de Bresson, 1989. "Les pôles technologiques du développement : vers un concept opérationnel," Revue Tiers Monde, Programme National Persée, vol. 30(118), pages 245-270.
- Fizaine, Florian, 2013.
"Byproduct production of minor metals: Threat or opportunity for the development of clean technologies? The PV sector as an illustration,"
Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 373-383.
- Florient Fizaine, 2013. "Byproduct production of minor metals: threat or opportunity for the development of clean technologies? The PV sector as an illustration," Post-Print halshs-01227250, HAL.
- Cho, Youngha, 2003. "Economic efficiency of multi-product structure: the evidence from Korean housebuilding firms," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 337-355, December.
- Dundar, Halil & Lewis, Darrell R., 1995. "Departmental productivity in American universities: Economies of scale and scope," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 119-144, June.
- Cynthia A. Montgomery, 1994. "Corporate Diversificaton," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 8(3), pages 163-178, Summer.
- Olesen, O. B., 1995. "Some unsolved problems in data envelopment analysis: A survey," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1-2), pages 5-36, April.
- Sergio Jara-Díaz & Eduardo Martínez-Budría & Cristiín Cortés & Leonardo Basso, 2002. "A multioutput cost function for the services of Spanish ports' infrastructure," Transportation, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 419-437, November.
- S. Baranzoni & P. Bianchi & L. Lambertini, 2000. "Multiproduct Firms, Product Differentiation, and Market Structure," Working Papers 368, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
- Antinori, Camille M. & Rausser, Gordon C, 2000.
"Vertical integration in Mexican community forestry,"
CUDARE Working Paper Series
915, University of California at Berkeley, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Policy.
- Antinori, Camille M. & Rausser, Gordon C., 2000. "Vertical integration in Mexican community forestry," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt7kd903jn, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
- Sandén, Björn A. & Hillman, Karl M., 2011. "A framework for analysis of multi-mode interaction among technologies with examples from the history of alternative transport fuels in Sweden," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 403-414, April.
- Rezvanian, Rasoul & Mehdian, Seyed, 2002. "An examination of cost structure and production performance of commercial banks in Singapore," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 79-98, January.
- Karaomerlioglu, Dilek Cetindamar, 1997. "The impact of process control technology on Turkish chemical industry," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(3), pages 307-321, December.
- Imanirad, Raha & Cook, Wade D. & Aviles-Sacoto, Sonia Valeria & Zhu, Joe, 2015. "Partial input to output impacts in DEA: The case of DMU-specific impacts," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 244(3), pages 837-844.
- Platikanova, Petya & Mattei, Marco Maria, 2016. "Firm geographic dispersion and financial analysts’ forecasts," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 71-89.
- Christine Lagoutte, 2001. "Le système bancaire britannique : spécificité et mutations," Revue d'Économie Financière, Programme National Persée, vol. 61(1), pages 63-74.
- Ajay Kalra & Shibo Li, 2008. "Signaling Quality Through Specialization," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 27(2), pages 168-184, 03-04.
- Joseph A. Clougherty, 2005.
"The International Drivers of Domestic Airline Mergers in Twenty Nations: Integrating Industrial Organization and International Business,"
CIG Working Papers
SP II 2005-06, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG).
- Joseph A. Clougherty, 2006. "The international drivers of domestic airline mergers in twenty nations: integrating industrial organization and international business," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(1), pages 75-93.
- José Pedro Pontes & John B. Parr, 2004. "Economics of Scope, Agglomeration and Location of the Multinational Firm," Working Papers Department of Economics 2004/04, ISEG - School of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, University of Lisbon.
- Kesting, Peter & Günzel-Jensen, Franziska, 2015. "SMEs and new ventures need business model sophistication," Business Horizons, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 285-293.
- Cockburn, Iain M. & Henderson, Rebecca M., 2001. "Scale and scope in drug development: unpacking the advantages of size in pharmaceutical research," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(6), pages 1033-1057, November.
- Kyläheiko, Kalevi & Jantunen, Ari & Puumalainen, Kaisu & Saarenketo, Sami & Tuppura, Anni, 2011. "Innovation and internationalization as growth strategies: The role of technological capabilities and appropriability," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(5), pages 508-520, October.
- Thomas Koslowski & Jens Strüker, 2011. "ERP On Demand Platform," Business & Information Systems Engineering- The International Journal of WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK, Springer;Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V. (GI), vol. 3(6), pages 359-367, December.
- Guido Buenstorf & Ulrich Witt, 2006. "How Problems of Organisational Growth in Firms Affect Industry Entry and Exit," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 97(5), pages 47-62.
- Rui J. P. de Figueiredo, Jr. & Evan Rawley, 2011. "Skill, Luck, and the Multiproduct Firm: Evidence from Hedge Funds," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 57(11), pages 1963-1978, November.
- Olivier Chatain & Peter Zemsky, 2007. "The Horizontal Scope of the Firm: Organizational Tradeoffs vs. Buyer-Supplier Relationships," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 53(4), pages 550-565, April.
- Chavas, Jean-Paul & Kim, Kwansoo, 2010. "Economies of diversification: A generalization and decomposition of economies of scope," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 126(2), pages 229-235, August.
- Jeffrey T. Macher, 2006. "Technological Development and the Boundaries of the Firm: A Knowledge-Based Examination in Semiconductor Manufacturing," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 52(6), pages 826-843, June.
- Kim, Jungho & Lee, Chang-Yang & Cho, Yunok, 2016. "Technological diversification, core-technology competence, and firm growth," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 113-124.
- Jaan Masso & Priit Vahter, 2011. "Exporting And Productivity: The Effects Of Multi-Market And Multi-Product Export Entry," University of Tartu - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Working Paper Series 83, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu (Estonia).
- Cummins, J. David & Weiss, Mary A. & Xie, Xiaoying & Zi, Hongmin, 2010. "Economies of scope in financial services: A DEA efficiency analysis of the US insurance industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1525-1539, July.
- Barros, Carlos Pestana & Wanke, Peter, 2015. "An analysis of African airlines efficiency with two-stage TOPSIS and neural networks," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 44, pages 90-102.
- Carvalho, Pedro & Marques, Rui Cunha, 2014. "Computing economies of vertical integration, economies of scope and economies of scale using partial frontier nonparametric methods," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 234(1), pages 292-307.
- Marco Giarratana & Alessandra Perri, 2014. "Product and Marketing Actions in a Competitive Scenario," Working Papers 30, Department of Management, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia.
- Ni, Debing & Li, Kevin W. & Tang, Xiaowo, 2009. "Production costs, scope economies, and multi-client outsourcing under quantity competition," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 121(1), pages 130-140, September.
- Wholey, Douglas & Feldman, Roger & Christianson, Jon B. & Engberg, John, 1996. "Scale and scope economies among health maintenance organizations," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(6), pages 657-684, December.
- Lorenz, Steffi, 2015. "Diversität und Verbundenheit der unternehmerischen Wissensbasis: Ein neuartiger Messansatz mit Indikatoren aus Innovationsprojekten," Discussion Papers on Strategy and Innovation 15-01, Philipps-University Marburg, Department of Technology and Innovation Management (TIM).
- Nick Johnstone & Julien Labonne & Célinc Thevenot, 2008. "Environmental policy and economies of scope in facility-level environmental practices," Environmental Economics and Policy Studies- The Official Journal of the Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies / The Official Journal of the East Asian Association of Environmental and, Springer;Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies - SEEPS, vol. 9(3), pages 145-166, September.
- Hoehn, John P., 1989. "The Production of Natural Resource Services: An Analysis of Supply-Side Economic Benefits and Costs," Staff Papers 201029, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
- Brandon Pope & Andrew Johnson, 2013. "Returns to scope: a metric for production synergies demonstrated for hospital production," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 40(2), pages 239-250, October.
- Richard J. Herring & Anthony M. Santomero, 1991. "The Role of the Financial Sector in Economic Performance," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 95-08, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
- Giovanni Fraquelli & Roberto Giandrone, 1997. "Costs, Technology And Ownership Form Of Natural Gas Distribution In Italy," CERIS Working Paper 199713, Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth - Moncalieri (TO).
- Stefan Baumgartner, 2001. "Heinrich von Stackelberg on joint production," The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(4), pages 509-525.
- Jörg Freiling, 2015. "Getting off the Track to Found – The Influence of Path Dependence on the Entrepreneurial Process (Zbaczajac z drogi ku zalozeniu przedsiebiorstwa – wplyw zaleznosci od szlaku na proces przedsiebiorczy," Problemy Zarzadzania, University of Warsaw, Faculty of Management, vol. 13(56), pages 13-37.
- Nehring, Richard F. & Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge & Banker, David E., 2002. "Off-Farm Labor And The Structure Of U.S. Agriculture: The Case Of Corn/Soybean Farms," 2002 Annual meeting, July 28-31, Long Beach, CA 19763, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
- Nadia Bensaci, 2008. "L’analyse de la banque selon le paradigme de la finance et l’examen du modèle de banque universelle en France," Revue d'Économie Financière, Programme National Persée, vol. 91(1), pages 127-142.
- Christine Lagoutte, 2004. "Le paradoxe des banques britanniques," Revue d'Économie Financière, Programme National Persée, vol. 77(4), pages 329-353.
- Hugo Salgado & Manuel Romero-Hernández, 2006. "Economies of Density, Network Size and Spatial Scope in the European Airline Industry," Working Papers 2006-13, FEDEA.
- Iimi, Atsushi, 2004. "Banking sector reforms in Pakistan: economies of scale and scope, and cost complementarities," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 507-528, June.
- Jaeck, Melanie & Lifran, Robert, 2011. "The Economic Determinants of the On-farm Management of Rice Cultivars in the Rhone River Delta (France)," 2011 Conference, August 25-26, 2011, Nelson, New Zealand 115508, New Zealand Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
- Thomas P. Triebs & David S. Saal & Pablo Arocena & Subal C. Kumbhakar, 2016. "Estimating economies of scale and scope with flexible technology," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 45(2), pages 173-186, April.
- Gholamreza Hajargasht & Tim Coelli & D. S. Prasada Rao, 2006.
"A Dual Measure of Economies of Scope,"
CEPA Working Papers Series
WP032006, School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia.
- Scorsone, Eric, 2007. "School District and Municipal Reorganization: Research Findings & Policy Proposals," Staff Papers 6543, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
- Andrea Guerrini & Giulia Romano & Bettina Campedelli, 2013. "Economies of Scale, Scope, and Density in the Italian Water Sector: A Two-Stage Data Envelopment Analysis Approach," Water Resources Management- An International Journal, Published for the European Water Resources Association (EWRA), Springer;European Water Resources Association (EWRA), vol. 27(13), pages 4559-4578, October.
- William S. Lovejoy & Kannan Sethuraman, 2000. "Congestion and Complexity Costs in a Plant with Fixed Resources that Strives to Make Schedule," Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, INFORMS, vol. 2(3), pages 221-239, February.
- Longlong, Hou & Fengliang, Li & Weifang, Min, 2009. "Multi-product total cost functions for higher education: The case of Chinese research universities," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 505-511, August.