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A Dual Measure of Economies of Scope

Information on the economies of scope (or cost complementarities) between two or more output variables is traditionally obtained from the second derivative properties of an econometrically estimated multi-output cost function. However, in some instances the econometric estimation of a cost function may not be viable, because cost or input price data are not readily available or because the assumption of cost minimising behaviour is not appropriate in the industry at hand, perhaps due to government ownership or regulatory controls. In this paper we address this issue by utilising the duality between the cost and input distance functions in deriving an expression for a measure of economies of scope in terms of the derivatives of an input distance function. We derive expressions for the special cases of the CES and translog functional forms, and then provide an empirical illustration using sample data on Australian aged care facilities, an industry which is currently undergoing a major pricing and regulatory review. Our empirical results indicate that there is some evidence for existence of economies of scope between high care and low care patients, a result which is of particular interest to policy makers in this industry.

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File URL: http://www.uq.edu.au/economics/cepa/docs/WP/Hazarghasht_WP03_06.pdf
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Paper provided by School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia in its series CEPA Working Papers Series with number WP032006.

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Date of creation: 2006
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Handle: RePEc:qld:uqcepa:22
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  1. Tim J. Coelli & Chris O'Donnell, 2003. "A Bayesian Approach To Imposing Curvature On Distance Functions," CEPA Working Papers Series WP032003, School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia.
  2. Jin, Songqing & Alston, Julian M. & Rozelle, Scott & Huang, Jikun, 2003. "Economies Of Scale And Scope, And The Economic Efficiency Of China'S Agricultural Research System," 2003 Annual meeting, July 27-30, Montreal, Canada 22088, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  3. Rezvanian, Rasoul & Mehdian, Seyed, 2002. "An examination of cost structure and production performance of commercial banks in Singapore," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 79-98, January.
  4. Takanori Ida & Tetsuya Kuwahara, 2004. "Yardstick Cost Comparison and Economies of Scale and Scope in Japan's Electric Power Industry," Asian Economic Journal, East Asian Economic Association, vol. 18(4), pages 423-438, December.
  5. Bloch, Harry & Madden, Gary G & Savage, Scott J, 2001. "Economies of scale and scope in Australian telecommunications," MPRA Paper 11154, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  6. David N. Laband & Bernard F. Lentz, 2003. "New Estimates of Economies of Scale and Scope in Higher Education," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 70(1), pages 172-183, July.
  7. Hanoch, Giora, 1975. "The Elasticity of Scale and the Shape of Average Costs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 65(3), pages 492-97, June.
  8. Blackorby, Charles & Russell, R Robert, 1981. "The Morishima Elasticity of Substitution; Symmetry, Constancy, Separability, and Its Relationship to the Hicks and Allen Elasticities," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(1), pages 147-58, January.
  9. Ivaldi, Marc & Mccullough, Gerard, 1999. "Density and Integration Effects on Class I U.S. Freight Railroads," IDEI Working Papers 93, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
  10. Atkinson, Scott E. & Primont, Daniel, 2002. "Stochastic estimation of firm technology, inefficiency, and productivity growth using shadow cost and distance functions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(2), pages 203-225, June.
  11. Jim Griffin & Mark Steel, 2005. "Bayesian Stochastic Frontier Analysis Using WinBUGS," Econometrics 0509004, EconWPA.
  12. Panzar, John C & Willig, Robert D, 1981. "Economies of Scope," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(2), pages 268-72, May.
  13. Coelli, Tim & Fleming, Euan, 2004. "Diversification economies and specialisation efficiencies in a mixed food and coffee smallholder farming system in Papua New Guinea," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 31(2-3), pages 229-239, December.
  14. Catherine J. Morrison Paul & Warren E. Johnston & Gerald A. G. Frengley, 2000. "Efficiency in New Zealand Sheep and Beef Farming: The Impacts of Regulatory Reform," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(2), pages 325-337, May.
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