IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/jbfina/v93y2018icp162-182.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Endogenous scope economies in microfinance institutions

Author

Listed:
  • Malikov, Emir
  • Hartarska, Valentina

Abstract

Scope economies resulting from the joint offering of loans and savings accounts (as opposed to loans only) are customarily invoked to promote the transformation of credit-only microfinance institutions (MFIs) into integrated loans-and-savings entities. To ensure robust inference, we estimate scope economies for the microfinance industry using a novel approach which, among its other advantages, accommodates inherent heterogeneity across loans-only and loans-and-savings MFIs as well as controls for endogenous self-selection of institutions into the either type. For analysis, we use a large 2004–2014 Mixmarket dataset. Unlike earlier studies, we do not find prevalent scope economies in the microfinance industry. We find that the median degree of scope economies is statistically indistinguishable from zero and that scope economies are significantly positive for less than a half of loans-and-savings MFIs. For a non-trivial 14% of institutions, the empirical evidence suggests the existence of significantly negative diseconomies of scope indicating that the separate production of loans and savings accounts actually has the potential to reduce an MFI’s costs. We also find that the failure to account for endogenous selectivity dramatically overestimates the degree of scope economies resulting in the failure to detect scope diseconomies among MFIs. Thus, our findings call for caution when invoking scope economies as a blanket justification for universal expansion of the scope of financial operations by MFIs. Instead, promoting integrated loans-and-savings MFIs may be justifiable as a means to meeting the needs of the poor rather than as a way for the industry to save costs.

Suggested Citation

  • Malikov, Emir & Hartarska, Valentina, 2018. "Endogenous scope economies in microfinance institutions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 162-182.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:93:y:2018:i:c:p:162-182
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jbankfin.2018.06.008
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378426618301341
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Barnett, William A. & Geweke, John & Wolfe, Michael, 1991. "Seminonparametric Bayesian estimation of the asymptotically ideal production model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 49(1-2), pages 5-50.
    2. Baumol, William J, 1982. "Contestable Markets: An Uprising in the Theory of Industry Structure," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(1), pages 1-15, March.
    3. Steven B. Caudill & Daniel M. Gropper & Valentina Hartarska, 2009. "Which Microfinance Institutions Are Becoming More Cost Effective with Time? Evidence from a Mixture Model," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 41(4), pages 651-672, June.
    4. Michael Delgado & Christopher Parmeter & Valentina Hartarska & Roy Mersland, 2015. "Should all microfinance institutions mobilize microsavings? Evidence from economies of scope," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 48(1), pages 193-225, February.
    5. Apostolos Serletis & Guohua Feng, 2015. "Imposing Theoretical Regularity on Flexible Functional Forms," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(1-2), pages 198-227, February.
    6. Charlier, Erwin & Melenberg, Bertrand & van Soest, Arthur, 2001. "An analysis of housing expenditure using semiparametric models and panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 101(1), pages 71-107, March.
    7. Evans, David S & Heckman, James J, 1984. "A Test for Subadditivity of the Cost Function with an Application to the Bell System," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(4), pages 615-623, September.
    8. Elsas, Ralf & Hackethal, Andreas & Holzhäuser, Markus, 2010. "The anatomy of bank diversification," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1274-1287, June.
    9. James J. Heckman & Apostolos Serletis, 2015. "Introduction to Econometrics with Theory: A Special Issue Honoring William A. Barnett," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(1-2), pages 1-5, February.
    10. Ekaterini Kyriazidou, 1997. "Estimation of a Panel Data Sample Selection Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 65(6), pages 1335-1364, November.
    11. K. Lopatta & M. Tchikov, 2016. "Do microfinance institutions fulfil their promise? Evidence from cross-country data," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(18), pages 1655-1677, April.
    12. Hughes, Joseph P. & Mester, Loretta J., 2013. "Who said large banks don’t experience scale economies? Evidence from a risk-return-driven cost function," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 559-585.
    13. Cull, Robert & Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli & Morduch, Jonathan, 2011. "Does Regulatory Supervision Curtail Microfinance Profitability and Outreach?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 949-965, June.
    14. Berger, Allen N. & Demsetz, Rebecca S. & Strahan, Philip E., 1999. "The consolidation of the financial services industry: Causes, consequences, and implications for the future," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 135-194, February.
    15. Berger, Allen N. & Cummins, J. David & Weiss, Mary A. & Zi, Hongmin, 2000. "Conglomeration versus Strategic Focus: Evidence from the Insurance Industry," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 323-362, October.
    16. D’Espallier, Bert & Goedecke, Jann & Hudon, Marek & Mersland, Roy, 2017. "From NGOs to Banks: Does Institutional Transformation Alter the Business Model of Microfinance Institutions?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 19-33.
    17. Hermes, Niels & Lensink, Robert & Meesters, Aljar, 2011. "Outreach and Efficiency of Microfinance Institutions," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 938-948, June.
    18. Valentina Hartarska & Christopher F. Parmeter & Denis Nadolnyak & Beibei Zhu, 2010. "Economies Of Scope For Microfinance: Differences Across Output Measures," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(4), pages 464-481, October.
    19. Yasar, Mahmut & Paul, Catherine J. Morrison & Ward, Michael R., 2011. "Property Rights Institutions and Firm Performance: A Cross-Country Analysis," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(4), pages 648-661, April.
    20. Malikov, Emir & Kumbhakar, Subal C. & Sun, Yiguo, 2016. "Varying coefficient panel data model in the presence of endogenous selectivity and fixed effects," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 190(2), pages 233-251.
    21. Caves, Douglas W & Christensen, Laurits R & Swanson, Joseph A, 1981. "Productivity Growth, Scale Economies, and Capacity Utilization in U.S. Railroads, 1955-74," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(5), pages 994-1002, December.
    22. Klein, Roger W & Spady, Richard H, 1993. "An Efficient Semiparametric Estimator for Binary Response Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 61(2), pages 387-421, March.
    23. Manski, Charles F, 1987. "Semiparametric Analysis of Random Effects Linear Models from Binary Panel Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 357-362, March.
    24. David Hulme, 2008. "The Story of the Grameen Bank: From Subsidised Microcredit to Market-based Microfinance," Global Development Institute Working Paper Series 6008, GDI, The University of Manchester.
    25. Barnett, William A., 2002. "Tastes and technology: curvature is not sufficient for regularity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 199-202, May.
    26. repec:wly:japmet:v:32:y:2017:i:7:p:1329-1347 is not listed on IDEAS
    27. Panzar, John C & Willig, Robert D, 1981. "Economies of Scope," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(2), pages 268-272, May.
    28. repec:ags:stataj:249809 is not listed on IDEAS
    29. Theo S. Eicher & Andreas Leukert, 2009. "Institutions and Economic Performance: Endogeneity and Parameter Heterogeneity," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 41(1), pages 197-219, February.
    30. Jason R. Blevins & Shakeeb Khan, 2013. "Local NLLS estimation of semi‐parametric binary choice models," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 16(2), pages 135-160, June.
    31. Khan, Shakeeb, 2013. "Distribution free estimation of heteroskedastic binary response models using Probit/Logit criterion functions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 172(1), pages 168-182.
    32. Pang Du & Christopher F. Parmeter & Jeffrey S. Racine, 2012. "Nonparametric Kernel Regression with Multiple Predictors and Multiple Shape Constraints," Department of Economics Working Papers 2012-08, McMaster University.
    33. Braeutigam, Ronald R. & Daughety, Andrew F., 1983. "On the estimation of returns to scale using variable cost functions," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-2), pages 25-31.
    34. Chavas, Jean-Paul & Kim, Kwansoo, 2010. "Economies of diversification: A generalization and decomposition of economies of scope," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 126(2), pages 229-235, August.
    35. Berger, Allen N. & Hanweck, Gerald A. & Humphrey, David B., 1987. "Competitive viability in banking : Scale, scope, and product mix economies," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 501-520, December.
    36. Mersland, Roy & Øystein Strøm, R., 2009. "Performance and governance in microfinance institutions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 662-669, April.
    37. Ahn, Hyungtaik & Powell, James L., 1993. "Semiparametric estimation of censored selection models with a nonparametric selection mechanism," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 3-29, July.
    38. Blevins, Jason R. & Khan, Shakeeb, 2013. "Distribution-free estimation of heteroskedastic binary response models in Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 13(3), pages 1-17.
    39. Horowitz, Joel L, 1992. "A Smoothed Maximum Score Estimator for the Binary Response Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(3), pages 505-531, May.
    40. James J. Heckman & Apostolos Serletis, "undated". "Introduction to Internally Consistent Modeling, Aggregation, Inference, and Policy," Working Papers 2014-73, Department of Economics, University of Calgary, revised 29 Sep 2014.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Anastasia Cozarenco & Valentina Hartarska & Ariane Szafarz, 2019. "Too Many Cooks Spoil the Broth: The Conflicting Impacts of Subsidies and Deposits on the Cost-Efficiency of Microfinance Institutions," Working Papers CEB 19-001, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    2. Magloire Nya Tchatchoua & Isabelle Pignatel & Hubert Tchakoute Tchuigoua, 2019. "What type of microfinance institutions comply with International Financial Reporting Standards?," Working Papers CEB 19-012, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    3. Knar Khachatryan & Vardan Baghdasaryan & Valentina Hartarska, 2018. "Is the model loans-plus-savings better for microfinance in ECA? A PSM comparison," Working Paper c5a69366-4231-479c-879d-c, European Microfinance Network.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Microfinance institutions; Scope economies; Endogenous selection; Financial intermediation; Savings and lending;

    JEL classification:

    • G15 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - International Financial Markets
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • O16 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment; Corporate Finance and Governance
    • L33 - Industrial Organization - - Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise - - - Comparison of Public and Private Enterprise and Nonprofit Institutions; Privatization; Contracting Out

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:93:y:2018:i:c:p:162-182. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jbf .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.