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From NGOs to banks: Does institutional transformation alter the business model of microfinance institutions?

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  • Bert D'Espallier
  • Jann Goedecke
  • Marek Hudon
  • Roy Mersland

Abstract

Microfinance, which pledges to provide financial services to people without access to banking, is chiefly run by non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Little is known about the extent to which the transformation of these NGOs into shareholder-owned and, most often, regulated firms affects the way microfinance institutions (MFIs) conduct their business. By applying the event study methodology to 66 MFIs that have transformed, we quantify the effect that transformation has on the MFIs’ business models. Our results suggest that portfolio yield is driven down by 3.9 percentage points due to transformation, indicating that clients get more favorable interest rates. At the same time, MFIs are able to significantly cut down their operational expenses, of which 1.1 percentage points can be attributed to transformation. Other findings include a steep increase in commercial debt leverage and deposits, a significant decrease in the fluctuation of funding costs and a sharp rise in average loan size. Profitability goes down in the short and medium term, while return on equity is driven up in the medium to long run. By exploiting within-MFI data, our approach goes beyond previous studies that mainly relied on between-MFI data. Overall, the results suggest that transformed MFIs become an attractive environment for investors, potentially encouraging a more profit-seeking behavior among transformed MFIs.

Suggested Citation

  • Bert D'Espallier & Jann Goedecke & Marek Hudon & Roy Mersland, 2016. "From NGOs to banks: Does institutional transformation alter the business model of microfinance institutions?," Working Papers CEB 16-029, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  • Handle: RePEc:sol:wpaper:2013/232522
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Li, Lin Yang & Hermes, Niels & Meesters, Aljar, 2019. "Convergence of the performance of microfinance institutions: A decomposition analysis," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 308-324.
    2. Jacinta C. Nwachukwu & Aqsa Aziz & Uchenna Tony‐Okeke & Simplice A. Asongu, 2018. "The determinants of interest rates in microfinance: Age, scale and organizational charter," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(3), pages 135-159, August.
    3. François Seck Fall, 2017. "Determinants of Microfinance institutions' access to bank credit in Senegal," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 37(2), pages 1327-1338.
    4. Schulte, Markus & Winkler, Adalbert, 2019. "Drivers of solvency risk – Are microfinance institutions different?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 403-426.
    5. Malikov, Emir & Hartarska, Valentina, 2018. "Endogenous scope economies in microfinance institutions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 162-182.
    6. Olga Gorelkina & Ioanna Grypari & Erin Hengel, 2019. "One strike and you’re out! The Master Lever’s effect on senatorial policy-making," Working Papers 201906, University of Liverpool, Department of Economics.
    7. Gul, Ferdinand A. & Podder, Jyotirmoy & Shahriar, Abu Zafar M., 2017. "Performance of Microfinance Institutions: Does Government Ideology Matter?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 1-15.
    8. Ashim Kumar Kar & Ranjula Bali Swain, 2018. "Competition, Performance and Portfolio Quality in Microfinance Markets," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 30(5), pages 842-870, December.
    9. Magloire Nya Tchatchoua & Isabelle Pignatel & Hubert Tchakoute Tchuigoua, 2019. "What type of microfinance institutions comply with International Financial Reporting Standards?," Working Papers CEB 19-012, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    10. Knar Khachatryan & Vardan Baghdasaryan & Valentina Hartarska, 2018. "Is the model loans-plus-savings better for microfinance in ECA? A PSM comparison," Working Paper c5a69366-4231-479c-879d-c, European Microfinance Network.
    11. François-Seck Fall, 2017. "Determinants of Microfinance institutions' access to bank credit in Senegal," Post-Print hal-01538412, HAL.
    12. Supriya Garikipati & Rebecca J. Docherty & Penelope A. Phillips-Howard, 2019. "What’s the bleeding problem? Policy and attitudes towards sustainable menstrual hygiene materials in India," Working Papers 201907, University of Liverpool, Department of Economics.
    13. Ranjula Bali Swain & Supriya Garikipati, 2019. "Microfinance in the Global South: Examining Evidence on Social Efficacy," Working Papers 201908, University of Liverpool, Department of Economics.
    14. Roy Mersland & Daudi Pascal & Leif Atle Beisland, 2016. "The influence of CEO power on agency costs in non-profit organisations: evidence from the global microfinance industry," Working Papers CEB 16-045, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    15. Malikov, Emir & Hartarska, Valentina & Mersland, Roy, 2019. "Economies of Diversification in Microfinance: Evidence from Quantile Estimation on Panel Data," MPRA Paper 95935, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Leif Atle Beisland & Bert D’Espallier & Roy Mersland, 2019. "The Commercialization of the Microfinance Industry: Is There a ‘Personal Mission Drift’ Among Credit Officers?," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 158(1), pages 119-134, August.
    17. Tchakoute-Tchuigoua, Hubert & Soumaré, Issouf, 2019. "The effect of loan approval decentralization on microfinance institutions' outreach and loan portfolio quality," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 1-17.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Microfinance; transformation; business model; regulation;

    JEL classification:

    • O16 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment; Corporate Finance and Governance
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • D61 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Allocative Efficiency; Cost-Benefit Analysis
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements

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