IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/taf/emetrv/v37y2018i10p1095-1119.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Heterogeneous credit union production technologies with endogenous switching and correlated effects

Author

Listed:
  • Emir Malikov
  • Diego A. Restrepo-Tobón
  • Subal C. Kumbhakar

Abstract

Credit unions differ in the types of financial services they offer to their members. This article explicitly models this observed heterogeneity using a generalized model of endogenous ordered switching. Our approach captures the endogenous choice that credit unions make when adding new products to their financial services mix. The model that we consider also allows for the dependence between unobserved effects and regressors in both the selection and outcome equations and can accommodate the presence of predetermined covariates in the model. We use this model to estimate returns to scale for U.S. retail credit unions from 1996 to 2011. We document strong evidence of persistent technological heterogeneity among credit unions offering different financial service mixes, which, if ignored, can produce quite misleading results. Employing our model, we find that credit unions of all types exhibit substantial economies of scale.

Suggested Citation

  • Emir Malikov & Diego A. Restrepo-Tobón & Subal C. Kumbhakar, 2018. "Heterogeneous credit union production technologies with endogenous switching and correlated effects," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(10), pages 1095-1119, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:emetrv:v:37:y:2018:i:10:p:1095-1119
    DOI: 10.1080/07474938.2016.1222234
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1080/07474938.2016.1222234
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Gayle, George-Levi & Viauroux, Christelle, 2007. "Root-N consistent semiparametric estimators of a dynamic panel-sample-selection model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 141(1), pages 179-212, November.
    2. David C. Wheelock & Paul W. Wilson, 2011. "Are Credit Unions Too Small?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 93(4), pages 1343-1359, November.
    3. Hughes, Joseph P. & Mester, Loretta J., 2013. "Who said large banks don’t experience scale economies? Evidence from a risk-return-driven cost function," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 559-585.
    4. James A. Wilcox, 2006. "Performance divergence of large and small credit unions," FRBSF Economic Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue aug4.
    5. Charlier, Erwin & Melenberg, Bertrand & van Soest, Arthur, 2001. "An analysis of housing expenditure using semiparametric models and panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 101(1), pages 71-107, March.
    6. James A. Wilcox, 2005. "Economies of scale and continuing consolidation of credit unions," FRBSF Economic Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue nov4.
    7. Newey, Whitney K., 1984. "A method of moments interpretation of sequential estimators," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 14(2-3), pages 201-206.
    8. Goddard, John & McKillop, Donal & Wilson, John O.S., 2008. "The diversification and financial performance of US credit unions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 1836-1849, September.
    9. Malikov, Emir & Kumbhakar, Subal C. & Sun, Yiguo, 2016. "Varying coefficient panel data model in the presence of endogenous selectivity and fixed effects," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 190(2), pages 233-251.
    10. Joseph P. Hughes & Loretta J. Mester, 1998. "Bank Capitalization And Cost: Evidence Of Scale Economies In Risk Management And Signaling," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(2), pages 314-325, May.
    11. Malikov, Emir & Kumbhakar, Subal C., 2014. "A generalized panel data switching regression model," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 124(3), pages 353-357.
    12. Wooldridge, Jeffrey M., 1995. "Selection corrections for panel data models under conditional mean independence assumptions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 115-132, July.
    13. Ekaterini Kyriazidou, 1997. "Estimation of a Panel Data Sample Selection Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 65(6), pages 1335-1364, November.
    14. Thierry Magnac, 2004. "Panel Binary Variables and Sufficiency: Generalizing Conditional Logit," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 72(6), pages 1859-1876, November.
    15. Bauer, Keldon J. & Miles, Linda L. & Nishikawa, Takeshi, 2009. "The effect of mergers on credit union performance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(12), pages 2267-2274, December.
    16. Semykina, Anastasia & Wooldridge, Jeffrey M., 2010. "Estimating panel data models in the presence of endogeneity and selection," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 157(2), pages 375-380, August.
    17. Verbeek, Marno, 1990. "On the estimation of a fixed effects model with selectivity bias," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 267-270, November.
    18. Arellano, Manuel & Carrasco, Raquel, 2003. "Binary choice panel data models with predetermined variables," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 125-157, July.
    19. Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2002. "Does Distance Still Matter? The Information Revolution in Small Business Lending," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2533-2570, December.
    20. Lee, Myoung-jae & Vella, Francis, 2006. "A semi-parametric estimator for censored selection models with endogeneity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 130(2), pages 235-252, February.
    21. Fried, Harold O. & Lovell, C. A. Knox & Yaisawarng, Suthathip, 1999. "The impact of mergers on credit union service provision," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 367-386, February.
    22. William R. Emmons & Frank A. Schmid, 1999. "Credit unions and the common bond," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, vol. 81(Sep), pages 41-64.
    23. Smith, Donald J, 1984. "A Theoretic Framework for the Analysis of Credit Union Decision Making," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(4), pages 1155-1168, September.
    24. Gary Chamberlain, 1980. "Analysis of Covariance with Qualitative Data," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 47(1), pages 225-238.
    25. Mundlak, Yair, 1978. "On the Pooling of Time Series and Cross Section Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 69-85, January.
    26. Scott Frame, W. & Karels, Gordon V. & McClatchey, Christine A., 2003. "Do credit unions use their tax advantage to benefit members? Evidence from a cost function," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 35-47.
    27. Caves, Douglas W & Christensen, Laurits R & Swanson, Joseph A, 1981. "Productivity Growth, Scale Economies, and Capacity Utilization in U.S. Railroads, 1955-74," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(5), pages 994-1002, December.
    28. Goddard, John A. & McKillop, Donal G. & Wilson, John O. S., 2002. "The growth of US credit unions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(12), pages 2327-2356.
    29. Christian Dustmann & María Engracia Rochina-Barrachina, 2007. "Selection correction in panel data models: An application to the estimation of females' wage equations," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 10(2), pages 263-293, July.
    30. Wheelock, David C. & Wilson, Paul W., 2013. "The evolution of cost-productivity and efficiency among US credit unions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 75-88.
    31. Bauer, Keldon, 2008. "Detecting abnormal credit union performance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 573-586, April.
    32. John R. Walter, 2006. "Not your father's credit union," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, vol. 92(Fall), pages 353-377.
    33. Magnac, Thierry, 2000. "Subsidised Training and Youth Employment: Distinguishing Unobserved Heterogeneity from State Dependence in Labour Market Histories," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(466), pages 805-837, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Christian Ewerhart & Robertas Zubrickas, 2019. "Social preference and group identity in the financial cooperative," ECON - Working Papers 332, Department of Economics - University of Zurich.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • C34 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Truncated and Censored Models; Switching Regression Models
    • D24 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Production; Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity; Capacity
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:taf:emetrv:v:37:y:2018:i:10:p:1095-1119. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: http://www.tandfonline.com/LECR20 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.