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The evolution of cost-productivity and efficiency among US credit unions

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  • Wheelock, David C.
  • Wilson, Paul W.

Abstract

Advances in information-processing technology have eroded the advantages of small scale and proximity to customers that traditionally enabled small lenders to thrive. Nonetheless, the membership and market share of US credit unions have increased, though their average size has also risen. We investigate changes in the efficiency and productivity of US credit unions during 1989–2006 by benchmarking the performance of individual firms against an estimated order-α quantile lying “near” the efficient frontier. We construct a cost analog of the Malmquist productivity index, which we decompose to estimate changes in cost and scale efficiency, and changes in technology. We find that cost-productivity fell on average across all credit unions but especially among smaller credit unions. Smaller credit unions confronted a shift in technology that increased the minimum cost required to produce given amounts of output. All but the largest credit unions also became less scale efficient over time.

Suggested Citation

  • Wheelock, David C. & Wilson, Paul W., 2013. "The evolution of cost-productivity and efficiency among US credit unions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 75-88.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:37:y:2013:i:1:p:75-88
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jbankfin.2012.08.003
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:taf:oaefxx:v:3:y:2015:i:1:p:1006976 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. R. Raymond Sant & Stephen B. Carter, 2015. "Acquired Credit Unions: Drivers of Takeover," International Journal of Business and Social Research, MIR Center for Socio-Economic Research, vol. 5(8), pages 18-33, August.
    3. Malikov, Emir & Kumbhakar, Subal C. & Sun, Yiguo, 2016. "Varying coefficient panel data model in the presence of endogenous selectivity and fixed effects," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 190(2), pages 233-251.
    4. Xia, X.H. & Chen, Y.B. & Li, J.S. & Tasawar, H. & Alsaedi, A. & Chen, G.Q., 2014. "Energy regulation in China: Objective selection, potential assessment and responsibility sharing by partial frontier analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 292-302.
    5. Léopold Simar & Paul W. Wilson, 2015. "Statistical Approaches for Non-parametric Frontier Models: A Guided Tour," International Statistical Review, International Statistical Institute, vol. 83(1), pages 77-110, April.
    6. repec:eee:jebusi:v:94:y:2017:i:c:p:43-53 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Mei-Ying Huang & Jia-Ching Juo & Tsu-tan Fu, 2015. "Metafrontier cost Malmquist productivity index: an application to Taiwanese and Chinese commercial banks," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 44(3), pages 321-335, December.
    8. Malikov, Emir & Restrepo-Tobon, Diego A & Kumbhakar, Subal C., 2016. "Heterogeneous Credit Union Production Technologies with Endogenous Switching and Correlated Effects," MPRA Paper 71593, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Lin, Yu-Hui & Fu, Tsu-Tan & Chen, Chia-Li & Juo, Jia-Ching, 2017. "Non-radial cost Luenberger productivity indicator," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 256(2), pages 629-639.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Efficiency; Productivity; Quantile estimation; Credit unions;

    JEL classification:

    • C13 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Estimation: General
    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

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