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Probabilistic Characterization of Directional Distances and their Robust Versions

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  • Simar, Léopold
  • Vanhems, Anne

Abstract

In productivity analysis, the performance of production units is measured through the distance of the individual decision making units (DMU) to the technology which is defined as the frontier of the production set. Most of the existing methods, Farrell-Debreu and Shephard radial measures (input or output oriented) and hyperbolic distance functions, rely on multiplicative measures of the distance and so require to deal with strictly positive inputs and outputs. This can be critical when the data contain zero or negative values as in financial data bases for the measure of funds performances. Directional distance function is an alternative that can be viewed as an additive measure of efficiency. We show in this paper that using a probabilistic formulation of the production process, the directional distance can be expressed as simple radial or hyperbolic distance up to a simple transformation of the inputs/outputs space. This allows to propose simple methods of estimation but also to transfer easily most of the known properties of the estimators shared by the radial and hyperbolic distances. In addition, the formulation allows to define robust directional distances in the lines of alpha-quantile or order-m partial frontiers. Finally we can also define conditional directional distance functions, conditional to environmental factors. To illustrate the methodology, we show how it can be implemented using a Mutual Funds database.

Suggested Citation

  • Simar, Léopold & Vanhems, Anne, 2010. "Probabilistic Characterization of Directional Distances and their Robust Versions," TSE Working Papers 10-195, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE).
  • Handle: RePEc:tse:wpaper:23435
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Michael C. Jensen, 1968. "The Performance Of Mutual Funds In The Period 1945–1964," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 23(2), pages 389-416, May.
    2. Murty, Sushama & Russell, R. Robert, 2010. "On modeling pollution-generating technologies," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 931, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
    3. Daouia, Abdelaati & Florens, Jean-Pierre & Simar, Léopold, 2009. "Frontier Estimation and Extreme Values Theory," TSE Working Papers 10-165, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE).
    4. Gregoriou, Greg N. & Sedzro, Komlan & Zhu, Joe, 2005. "Hedge fund performance appraisal using data envelopment analysis," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 164(2), pages 555-571, July.
    5. Jeong, Seok-Oh & Simar, Léopold, 2006. "Linearly interpolated FDH efficiency score for nonconvex frontiers," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 97(10), pages 2141-2161, November.
    6. Daouia, Abdelaati & Florens, Jean-Pierre & Simar, Léopold, 2012. "Regularization of nonparametric frontier estimators," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 168(2), pages 285-299.
    7. Cinzia Daraio & Léopold Simar, 2005. "Introducing Environmental Variables in Nonparametric Frontier Models: a Probabilistic Approach," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 24(1), pages 93-121, September.
    8. Badin, Luiza & Daraio, Cinzia & Simar, Léopold, 2010. "Optimal bandwidth selection for conditional efficiency measures: A data-driven approach," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 201(2), pages 633-640, March.
    9. Wheelock, David C. & Wilson, Paul W., 2008. "Non-parametric, unconditional quantile estimation for efficiency analysis with an application to Federal Reserve check processing operations," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 145(1-2), pages 209-225, July.
    10. Daraio, Cinzia & Simar, Leopold, 2006. "A robust nonparametric approach to evaluate and explain the performance of mutual funds," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 175(1), pages 516-542, November.
    11. Fare, Rolf, et al, 1993. "Derivation of Shadow Prices for Undesirable Outputs: A Distance Function Approach," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 75(2), pages 374-380, May.
    12. Léopold Simar & Paul Wilson, 2011. "Inference by the m out of n bootstrap in nonparametric frontier models," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 36(1), pages 33-53, August.
    13. Harry Markowitz, 1952. "Portfolio Selection," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 7(1), pages 77-91, March.
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    16. Kneip, Alois & Simar, Léopold & Wilson, Paul W., 2008. "Asymptotics And Consistent Bootstraps For Dea Estimators In Nonparametric Frontier Models," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(06), pages 1663-1697, December.
    17. Léopold Simar, 2003. "Detecting Outliers in Frontier Models: A Simple Approach," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 20(3), pages 391-424, November.
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    22. Morey, Matthew R. & Morey, Richard C., 1999. "Mutual fund performance appraisals: a multi-horizon perspective with endogenous benchmarking," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 241-258, April.
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    JEL classification:

    • C13 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Estimation: General
    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General

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